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AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES GRADE 12 PAPER 2 MEMORANDUM - NSC PAST PAPERS AND MEMOS NOVEMBER 2017

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AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES PAPER 2
GRADE 12
MEMORANDUM
NOVEMBER 2017
NATIONAL SENIOR CETIFICATE

SECTION A
QUESTION 1
1.1
1.1.1 C ✓✓
1.1.2 B ✓✓
1.1.3 C ✓✓
1.1.4 B ✓✓
1.1.5 A✓✓
1.1.6 D✓✓
1.1.7 A ✓✓
1.1.8 A ✓✓
1.1.9 D ✓✓
1.1.10 A/B ✓✓ (10 x 2) (20)
1.2
1.2.1 D ✓✓
1.2.2 G ✓✓
1.2.3 A ✓✓
1.2.4 F ✓✓
1.2.5 H ✓✓ (5 x 2) (10)
1.3
1.3.1 Balance sheet ✓✓
1.3.2 Collateral ✓✓
1.3.3 Heritability ✓✓
1.3.4 Incomplete dominance ✓✓
1.3.5 Monohybrid ✓✓ (5 x 2) (10)
1.4
1.4.1 Research/survey ✓
1.4.2 Labour ✓
1.4.3 Atavism/throwback✓
1.4.4 Genetic engineering/modification/manipulation/GM ✓
1.4.5 Silencing ✓ (5 x 1) (5)
TOTAL SECTION A: 45

SECTION B
QUESTION 2: AGRICULTURAL MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING
2.1 Entrepreneurship
2.1.1 Entrepreneurial success factors

  1. - Organisational/coordination abilities ✓
  2. - Technical/operational knowledge ✓
  3. - Innovative/creativeness/vision/insight ✓
  4. - Perseverance ✓ (4)

2.1.2 THREE resources required for starting a business

  • Financial ✓
  • Human ✓
  • Physical ✓ (3)

2.2 Development of marketing
2.2.1 TWO functions of marketing

  • Packaging ✓
  • Storage ✓
  • Transportation ✓ (Any 2) (2)

2.2.2 Marketing type
Free marketing ✓ (1)
2.2.3 Reason
The farmer will be selling direct to the consumers and wholesalers/ no regulatory measures ✓ (1)
2.2.4 TWO problems of free marketing

  • Competition ✓
  • High marketing costs/marketing products/time spent expensive ✓
  • Limited bargaining power ✓
  • Over production/risk due to production decision ✓
  • Price fluctuation ✓
  • No regulations ✓ (Any 2) (2)

2.3 Marketing process
2.3.1 Marketing process illustrated
Marketing/supply-demand chain ✓ (1)
2.3.2 The highest paying consumer
Consumer C ✓ (1)
2.3.3 TWO reasons for paying the high price

  • Processing cost ✓
  • Transportation cost ✓
  • Profit margins/intermediaries ✓
  • Storage costs✓ ( Any 2) (2)

2.3.4 TWO factors hampering marketing during transportation

  • Perishability/spoilage of the product ✓
  • Accidents/physical damages ✓
  • Bad roads limiting access to market ✓
  • Theft ✓
  • Bulkiness in relation to volume ✓
  • Distance from the markets/wide distribution ✓
  • Costs ✓
  • Weather conditions/delays ✓ (Any 2) (2)

2.4 Identification of the marketing approach
2.4.1 Niche marketing ✓ (1)
2.4.2 Multi-segment marketing ✓ (1)
2.5 Bar graph on sugar cane production
2.5.1 A bar graph on the supply and demand of sugar cane from 2013 to 2016
2.5
Criteria/rubric/marking guidelines

  • Correct heading ✓
  • X-axis: Correctly calibrated and labelled (Time) ✓
  • Y-axis: Correctly calibrated and labelled (Quantity) ✓
  • Correct units (million tons and years) ✓
  • Bar graph ✓
  • Accuracy ✓ (6)

2.5.2 TWO factors influencing the price of sugar cane

  • Supply ✓
  • Demand ✓ (2)

2.6 Business plan
2.6.1 Definition of a business plan
It is a document ✓ that describes a business the entrepreneur wants/is intending to start ✓ (2)
2.6.2 TWO reasons for drawing up a business plan

  • Test the feasibility and economic viability ✓
  • Determination of the financial needs/budgeting ✓
  • Guiding daily operations ✓
  • To foresee problems/mistakes ✓
  • Outlines the roles and responsibilities of people involved ✓
  • Provides guideline for decision making ✓
  • Identify opportunities ✓
  • Provide information on internal/external business environment/ competitors ✓
  • It is a plan for capital requirements/secure funding ✓
  • Provides analysis of the business and its activities ✓
  • Also outlines time frames for completion of the tasks ✓ (Any 2) (2)

2.6.3 TWO problems encountered when drawing up a business plan

  • Conducting insufficient research/survey ✓
  • Provision of too much unnecessary information/leaving gaps/being too vague ✓
  • Putting unrealistic assumptions/projections ✓
  • Not being able to identify the potential risks/ hiding weaknesses/risks ✓
  • Committing budget and cash flow errors ✓
  • Use of incorrect format ✓ (Any 2) (2)
    [35]

QUESTION 3 : PRODUCTION FACTORS
3.1 Analysis of an advert
3.1.1 Indication of the position for placement in JOB 1
Position of a farm manager/manager ✓ (1)
3.1.2 TWO reasons JOB 1

  • Qualification needed for the job ✓
  • Analytical and conceptual skills required for the job ✓
  • Financial management skills needed for the job ✓ (Any 2) (2)

3.1.3 Skills enabling candidate for JOB 1

  1. Analytical and conceptual skills ✓ (1)
  2. Financial management skill ✓ (1)
  3. Interpersonal skill ✓ (1)

3.1.4 Type of temporary labourer for JOB 2
Seasonal ✓ (1)
3.1.5 Reason
Needed to operate a harvester which is done seasonally ✓ (1)
3.2 HIV infections of farm workers over thirteen years
3.2.1 The trend of HIV infections over years
Infections increased from 1998 until reaching peak in 2007 ✓ and decreased from 2007 to 2010 ✓ (2)
3.2.2 Possible measures that might have resulted in trend after 2007

  • Provide awareness campaigns/education ✓
  • Provision of access to condoms ✓
  • Abstain from sex✓
  • Access to treatment to sexually transmitted disease ✓
  • Support groups ✓ (Any 3) (3)

3.2.3 THREE impacts of HIV on the productivity of farm workers

  • Workers become sick/production declines/deadlines not met ✓
  • Lack of energy to complete tasks ✓
  • Absenteeism amongst infected workers/planning becomes difficult ✓
  • Loss of skills and experience ✓
  • Impacts negatively on healthy workers✓ (Any 3) (3)

3.3 Measure to reduce labour problems
3.3.1 Mechanisation/provision of leave/rest time/ nutritional programmes/additional work force ✓ (1)
3.3.2 Provision of training/re-skilling ✓ (1)
3.4 Scenario on capital
3.4.1 Type of capital from the scenario

  • Movable ✓
  • Fixed ✓ (Any 1) (1)

3.4.2 Calculation of the amount to be repaid after a year at 11,5%

  • R340 000 – R180 000 = R160 000 ✓
  • R160 000 x 11,5% = R18 400 ✓
  • R160 000 + R 18 400 = R 178 400 ✓ (3)

3.4.3 Total income of the enterprise for THREE months

  • Sale of eggs = R12 000 x 4 = R48 000 x 3 = R144 000 ✓
  • Total income = R144 000 + R105 000 = R249 000 ✓ (2)

3.4.4 TWO reasons to be able to repay the loan

  • The farmer is making a profit/surplus/R70 600 ✓
  • The expected income for three months will be R 249 000 ✓
  • A loan of R178 400 can be repaid even in 3 months ✓ (Any 2) (2)

3.5 Strategic management
3.5.1 TWO reasons for developing a business strategy

  • To make business more profitable/more competitive ✓
  • To enable the manager to adapt to changes/challenges that might occur in future ✓ (2)

3.5.2 The steps in strategic management

  1. - Developing business strategy/planning ✓
  2. - Mission ✓
  3. - Vision ✓
  4. - Goals and objectives ✓ (4)

3.6 Scenario on land as a production factor
3.6.1 Method of increasing land productivity
Zero till /Water management ✓ (1)
3.6.2 ONE adaptation measure used to increase the land productivity
No/zero till ✓ (1)
3.6.3 A method to improve yields in the future
Breeding of drought resistant cultivars/GM/developing hybrids ✓ (1)
[35]

QUESTION 4: BASIC AGRICULTURAL GENETICS
4.1 Illustration of incomplete dominance
4.1.1 Type of dominance
Incomplete dominance ✓ (1)
4.1.2 Motivation on the type of dominance

  • The offspring inherited none of the colours of the parents/ ( No parent is dominant) ✓
  • The offspring is grey/intermediate/neither black nor white ✓ (2)

4.1.3 Completion of the missing answers
a) WW ✓
b) BB ✓
c) W ✓
e) B ✓
g) BW/WB ✓ (5)
4.2 GMO crop
4.2.1 TWO benefits of GM crops

  • More productive/higher yields/improved commercial properties ✓
  • Resistant to maize stalk borer/pest hence reduce the use of harmful chemicals ✓ (2)

4.2.2 Genetic modification of maize plants
DNA is extracted from the bacterium (Bacillus thuringiensis) ✓ transferred to a maize plant ✓ and the plant acquires resistance to maize stalk borer ✓ (3)
4.2.3 Negative effect on the environment of GM crops

  • Creation of super weeds ✓
  • Possibility to create pesticides resistant insects ✓
  • Beneficial insects could be killed ✓
  • Reduce biodiversity ✓ (Any 2) (2)

4.3.1 TWO common ancestors of individuals S and D

  • 13 ✓
  • 5 ✓
  • 7 ✓ (Any 2) (2)

4.3.2 Benefits of upgrading to livestock farmers

  • A new breed is gradually imported into the herd ✓
  • Initial rapid results (50% improvement in first generation) ✓
  • Deformities/unwanted characteristics occur less frequent ✓
  • Economical way to raise the stock to a pedigree level ✓
  • Less expert knowledge required ✓ (Any 2) (2)

4.4 Scenario on variation
4.4.1 The genetic phenomenon
Variation ✓ (1)
4.4.2 TWO possible external causes of the phenomenon

  • Diseases/pests ✓
  • Nutrients/feeding ✓
  • Climate/temperature/rainfall ✓
  • Environmental/soil ✓ (Any 2) (2)

4.3 Schematic representation of line breeding
4.4.3 Importance of this phenomenon

  • Assists in selecting parents with the desired characteristics ✓
  • Develop new cultivars/crop varieties ✓ (Any 1) (1)

4.5 Breeding systems
4.5.1 Suitable animal breeding system
Cross breeding ✓ (1)
4.5.2 Reason
There are two breeds involved/Nguni and Hereford breeds ✓ (1)
4.5.3 Motivation of the breeding system

  • Leads to increased heterosis✓
  • Hybrid vigour/ better performance✓
  • Produces progeny that is hardy✓
  • Resistant to diseases ✓
  • Progeny produce heavy early weaners ✓
  • Increase in the genetic variation ✓ (Any 2) (2)

4.5.4 TWO disadvantages of inbreeding

  • Leads to inbreeding depression ✓
  • Increases the expression of lethal genes✓
  • Leads to deformed offspring ✓
  • Causes the loss of genetic variation ✓ (Any 2) (2)

4.6 Estimated Breeding Value (EBV)
4.6.1 TWO characteristics for selection

  • Birth weight ✓
  • Slaughter weight ✓ (2)

4.6.2 TWO reasons

  • Accuracy percentage is higher in both ✓
  • Characteristics are highly reliable ✓
  • Heritability is also high in both ✓ (Any 2) (2)

4.6.3 TWO importance of the Estimated Breeding Value

  • The prediction of the performance of the progeny for a particular characteristic ✓
  • Indicate the characteristic to select for based on performance ✓
  • Help to estimate the rate of genetic progress in the breeding programme ✓ (Any 2) (2)
    [35]

TOTAL SECTION B: 105
GRAND TOTAL: 150

Last modified on Friday, 30 July 2021 11:33