Friday, 30 July 2021 08:54


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  1. This question paper consists of TWO sections.
  2. Answer ALL the questions in the ANSWER BOOK.
  3. Read the questions carefully and answer only what is asked.
  4. Number the answers correctly according to the numbering system used in this question paper.
  5. You may use a non-programmable calculator.
  6. Write neatly and legibly.

1.1 Various options are provided as possible answers to the following questions. Choose the answer and write only the letter (A–D) next to the question number (1.1.1–1.1.10) in the ANSWER BOOK, for example 1.1.11 D.
1.1.1 Soils with no restricting layers, for example no plough sole, are beneficial for an improved …

  1. soil structure.
  2. pH balance.
  3. root development.
  4. soil texture.

1.1.2 A variety of production enterprises on the same farm is known as …

  1. crop rotation.
  2. diversification.
  3. specialisation.
  4. pasture rotation.

1.1.3 The type of labourer employed on a farm with 21 days annual leave:

  1. Permanent labourer
  2. Contract labourer
  3. Seasonal labourer
  4. Occasional labourer

1.1.4 The farming system where animals graze in large camps of natural pastures with no supplementary feeding:

  1. Extensive farming
  2. Intensive farming
  3. Semi-intensive farming
  4. Precision farming

1.1.5 The financial statement that will determine the liquidity of a farm for a certain period:

  1. Inventory
  2. Income statement
  3. Trial balance
  4. Balance sheet

1.1.6 The management principle where a farmer has to choose from different options or solutions for a problem and implement them:

  1. Planning
  2. Coordination
  3. Evaluation
  4. Decision-making

1.1.7 A processing method where high temperatures are used on vegetables for a very short period:

  1. Sterilisation
  2. Pasteurisation
  3. Blanching
  4. Grilling

1.1.8 The aim of the Basic Conditions of Employment Act, 1997 (Act 75 of 1997) is that labourers will …

  1. be issued with protective clothing if pesticides are sprayed.
  2. work the correct working hours.
  3. receive compensation if injured in the execution of their duties.
  4. receive training to improve skills.

1.1.9 A farming system where all the animals on the farm receive the correct amount of feed every day according to production, reproduction and weight:

  1. Subsistence farming
  2. Extensive farming
  3. Precision farming
  4. Commercial farming

1.1.10 The marketing channel where farmers use buyers that bid for the produce:

  1. Internet
  2. Farm gate marketing
  3. Auctions
  4. Export marketing (10 x 2)

1.2 Choose a description from COLUMN B that matches a term in COLUMN A. Write only the letter (A–L) next to the question number (1.2.1–1.2.10) in the ANSWER BOOK, for example 1.2.11 M.

1.2.1 Soil durability
1.2.2 Soil water capacity
1.2.3 Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1993 (Act 85 of 1993)
1.2.4 Bank overdrafts
1.2.5 Production risk
1.2.6 Commercial farming
1.2.7 Packaging
1.2.8 Advertising
1.2.9 Green marketing
1.2.10 Global positioning system (GPS)
  1. technology and materials used to cover the harvested product before selling
  2. uses brochures or posters to inform consumers of farm products
  3. an effective farming method to ensure sustainable and profitable food production
  4. soil cannot be destroyed
  5. type of credit obtained by a farmer
  6. assists a farmer to determine the area (ha) of a land
  7. employer and employee must ensure that all precautionary measures have been taken before executing a task
  8. ability of soils to retain water against gravity
  9. physical labour, supervisory and management functions
  10. drought and unexpected weather phenomena in a production season
  11. sells organic produce in recyclable containers
  12. measures the response of profit after the price change 

(10 x 2) (20)
1.3 Give the CORRECT agricultural term for each of the following descriptions. Write only the term next to the question number (1.3.1–1.3.10) in the ANSWER BOOK, for example 1.3.11 Recording.
1.3.1 A type of capital that is invested in items of a permanent value
1.3.2 The setting of a machine to work at the correct tempo
1.3.3 A farm budget which concentrates on a single farming enterprise
1.3.4 A type of veld that will grow in alkaline soils in low rainfall areas
1.3.5 The growth of a new business venture as a result of innovative individuals who respond to opportunities in the market
1.3.6 A recording method used to keep track of workers' working hours
1.3.7 The proposed date by which a product should have been used that appears on the packaging of agricultural products
1.3.8 A management principle that must be followed before any task on a farm can start
1.3.9 Setting of criteria to categorise products according to quality
1.3.10 A source document used to receive the agricultural items bought
(10 x 1) (10)

Start this question on a NEW page.
2.1 A crop farmer obtained data from a cropping field that describes the nature of the soil. The analysis indicates that if irrigation is applied, runoff will occur.
2.1.1 Name THREE basic soil requirements for irrigation purposes. (3)
2.1.2 Briefly explain THREE methods a farmer can use to reduce the water runoff. (3)
2.2Explain the effect of adding organic material to organically rich soils and organically poor soils. Refer to the TWO physical aspects given below.
Redraw and complete the table in the ANSWER BOOK.

Soil temperature     
Soil erosion     

(4 x 1) (4)
2.3 Natural pastures are the most economical source of feed for grazing animals. An effective way to improve the productivity of natural pastures is to use a camp system.
2.3.1 Discuss FOUR reasons why a livestock farmer should use a camp system on natural pastures. (4)
2.3.2 State FOUR practices that lead to the deterioration of the veld. (4)
2.4 Briefly define the following sources of capital:
2.4.1 Own capital (1)
2.4.2 Credit (1)
2.4.3 Production capital (1)
2.5 The graph below shows the relationship between crop yield and the amount of fertiliser applied.
2.5.1 Identify the economic characteristic of soil, shown in the graph above. (1)
2.5.2 Briefly explain why the graph does NOT start at a yield of 0 ton/ha. (3)
2.6 Describe FOUR methods that farmers may use to increase the productivity and sustainable production of a specific cultivated field. (4)
2.7 Labour refers to a worker selling an activity to the owner of the farm in exchange for a wage.
2.7.1 Name THREE functions of a hired employee. (3)
2.7.2 Describe FOUR methods that farmers may use to improve the conditions on the farm for their workers to adhere to the Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1993 (Act 85 of 1993). (4)
2.8 Briefly explain the effect of the incorrect calibration of pesticide and herbicide sprayers on the degradation of natural resources. (3)
2.9 Study the budget for a mixed farm below.

ITEM  Amount (R)  ITEM  Amount (R) 
Rams   100 000 Old rams   50 000
Feed   320 000 Old ewes   150 000
Veterinary treatment   100 000 Mutton   200 000
Wool shearing   1 800 Sheep   500 000
Transport   16 200 Manure   20 600
Abattoirs 15 000 Wool 95 400
Total costs   Total returns  
Water tax (irrigation) 10 200 Raw crop product 35 500
Fertiliser 33 000 Processed product 65 000
Seeds 5 000 Compost 34 000
Labour 25 000 Haylage 32 500
Pesticides 20 000 Commission 15 000
Transport 19 800    
Total costs   Total returns  

2.9.1 Identify the type of budget represented above. Motivate your answer. (2)
2.9.2 Give TWO reasons for compiling a budget for a farming enterprise. (2)
2.9.3 Determine the following items from the data in the budget above:

  • Total costs for the livestock enterprise(1)
  • Total returns for the livestock enterprise(1)
  • Total costs for the crop enterprise(1)
  • Total returns for the crops enterprise (1)

2.9.4 Calculate the net profit or loss for this farm. Indicate whether it is a profit or a loss. Show ALL calculations. (3)

Start this question on a NEW page.
3.1 Every farmer should be an entrepreneur.
3.1.1 Define the term entrepreneur. (4)
3.1.2 State FOUR criteria that should be considered before starting an agricultural business. (4)
3.2 The SWOT analysis gives insight into the challenges the farming entrepreneur faces in a farming business venture.
Tabulate and describe EACH component of the SWOT analysis. Use the table format below.

Components  Description 

3.3 Listed below are activities of the direct marketing of farm produce to a retailer.
storage; packaging; processing; specialised transport; harvesting; grading
Name ANY product of your choice, rearrange the activities above and give an appropriate reason for the order of EACH activity for your product. (10)
3.4 Name TWO pricing objectives guiding the pricing decisions of agricultural products. (2) 
3.5 During full production a farmer produces 2 000 kg of a product per week, ready to be marketed. Market A is a small market closer to the farm (50 km) and

Market B is a big market further away (70 km). The transport cost is R12,50/km.
At Market A there is the risk that only 70% of the produce will be sold, in contrast to
Market B where everything will be sold. The produce will most likely be ready for the
market during weeks three and four.

3.5.1 Name TWO main factors that determine the price of agricultural produce. (2)
3.5.2 Calculate the possible profit at Market A during the third week, taking the risk into account. Show ALL calculations. (5)
3.5.3 Calculate the possible profit at Market B during the third week. Show ALL calculations. (3)
3.5.4 Make a recommendation to the farmer based on the highest profit during the month, as indicated on the graph. (3)
3.6 The following are the financial records of a crop farmer as at the end of July:

Property  1 800 000 
Creditors  800 000 
Plants and equipment  350 000 
Inventory  2 000 
Debtors  300 000 
Mortgage bond  200 000 

3.6.1 Arrange the items in the table above according to the headings in the table below.

Current assets  Non-current assets  Current liabilities  Non-current liabilities 

3.6.2 Name the type of farm record that is prepared from the assets and liabilities of the farm. (1)
3.6.3 Calculate the net worth of the farm if the assets are R2 900 000 and the liabilities are R1 200 000. Show ALL calculations. (2)

Start this question on a NEW page.
4.1 The packaging and labelling of farm products are controlled by food and marketing legislation.
4.1.1 Name FIVE specifications regarding labelling. (5)
4.1.2 State FOUR aspects addressed by the National Health Act, 2003 (Act 61 of 2003) regarding the supply of agricultural products. (4)
4.2 Distinguish between the following food terms:
4.2.1 Fermentation (2)
4.2.2 Decomposition (2)
4.3 Give THREE examples where filtration will be part of food processing. (3)
4.4 Name and describe THREE factors that influence the processing of agricultural products. (6)
4.5 An organogram is needed in an agricultural business enterprise to show an employee who his/her supervisor is.
Use the information below to draw a typical agricultural organogram.

  • Supervisor of a production unit
  • Employee
  • Farm owner
  • Farm manager (4)

4.6 Control is an important principle of the management process.
4.6.1 Define the term control. (2)
4.6.2 Briefly explain how control will be used in an enterprise as a managerial principle. (2)
4.6.3 Explain how quality assurance will be done during control. (1)
4.7 Briefly explain FOUR reasons for planning. (4)
4.8 Describe THREE factors of decision-making on which the functioning of a farm depends. (3)
4.9 Name and describe the TWO aspects of organisation. (5)
4.10 State FIVE activities that contribute to agritourism. (5)
4.11 Describe TWO roles of a farmer in agritourism. (2)


Last modified on Friday, 30 July 2021 09:59