Monday, 26 July 2021 09:24

SECTION C: LANGUAGE STRUCTURES AND CONCENTIONS - ENGLISH FIRST ADDITIONAL LANGUAGE PAPER 1 GRADE 12 STUDY GUIDE AND NOTES

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In this section, pay special attention to your grammar and spelling! 

The exam for Section C will test your knowledge of language structures and  conventions. This will include: 

  • Vocabulary and language use; 
  • Sentence structure; and 
  • Writing and editing skills. 

It will also test your visual literacy skills and your ability to critically analyse  a text so that you understand what is being communicated. 
In this section, you will learn the steps that will help you to write the  advertisement, cartoon and language parts of the exam: 

  1. Visual literacy 
  2. Critical language awareness 
  3. Analysing an advertisement
  4. Analysing a cartoon
  5. Language 

You will find examples of how to answer the questions in Section C, based  on questions and answers from past exam papers. When answering the  questions, you must: 

  • Read the exam instructions carefully so you understand what the  examiner requires you to do; 
  • Read the exam questions carefully so that you understand how to  answer them; and  
  • Answer the questions according to the exam instructions. Pay attention  to your use of language, grammar and spelling. 

1. Visual literacy 

  • A person who is literate is able to read and write. A person who is  visually literate can make  sense of images or  pictures. 

Visual literacy is the ability to make meaning of information presented  in the form of an image. In other words, if you are visually literate you  understand what the drawings in a cartoon, or the drawings or photographs  in an advertisement, are communicating to you.  
In order to answer exam questions that are based on advertisements or  cartoons, you need to be visually literate because advertisements and  cartoons include both words and images (drawings or photographs). 

2. Critical language   awareness 

To be critical when reading, viewing or listening means to analyse the  material so that you can understand what is really being communicated.  
When you study advertisements and cartoons, you should watch out for: 

  • Emotive or manipulative language. Advertisers use emotive (emotional)  language and images to persuade us to buy products. 
  • Stereotyping. A stereotype is a misleading idea of someone or something  as a type, with no regard to the truth about the actual person or thing.  The ideas that ‘all children are noisy’, ‘women belong in the kitchen’ or  ‘strong men don’t cry’ are examples of stereotyping. We know that not  all children are noisy, women do not all belong in the kitchen and many  strong men do cry. 
  • Prejudice or bias. This is close to stereotyping. It is a way of thinking  that makes us believe that we know something about a whole group of  people, and that makes us feel good or bad about them, no matter what  the facts are. Racial, religious and political prejudices are very common.  
  • Lies. People often lie to make you believe or do something, so we  forget to ask: ‘Is this the truth?’ For example an advert may promise  ‘Our miracle diet pills will turn you from plump to slender in only three  weeks.’ You are not also told that you will lose weight only if you exercise  and eat a healthy diet at the same time, and what, exactly, ‘plump’ and  ‘slender’ mean. 
  • Association. When two things are associated in your mind, you may  feel that they ‘go together’. For example, if you are told about beautiful  people who use Whammo deodorant and who have lots of fun, you  are being asked to believe that if you use Whammo deodorant you will  become like the beautiful people and have lots of fun. Even great music  in a TV commercial can persuade you that the product being advertised  will make you feel as good as the music does. 

3. Analysing an  advertisement 

The purpose of advertising is to persuade someone to buy a product  (for example food or clothing); or to do something (for example, to stop  smoking or to vote in an election). Advertisements also announce events  (for example, Mandela Day or a sporting event) and inform the public about  jobs or services that are available. 

  • To persuade: To try to  convince a person to do  something or to influence or  guide a person’s thinking. 
  • Read adverts whenever you get the chance!

Advertisements come in many forms: 

  • Printed advertisements, which may be:
    • Advertisements containing words and images in newspapers and  magazines;
    • Short advertisements in newspapers using words only, called  classified advertisements;
    • Posters on walls, or streetlight poles, or notice boards; 
    • Flyers (loose sheets of paper handed to people in the street or  dropped into post boxes); and
    • Catalogues (booklets advertising all the products made by a particular  company or sold by a particular store). 
  • Radio commercials 
  • Television and film commercials 
  • Advertisements on smart phones and on the internet 

Advertisements attract people’s attention by: 

  • Using layout and colours which draw attention to specific words;
  • Being amusing or clever; 
  • Featuring attractive or interesting people and places; 
  • Using catchy slogans and phrases, for example, ‘Betty’s buns are better’;
  • Promoting a bargain; and 
  • Playing interesting music (television and radio). 

When you study advertisements, think about: 

  • What is being advertised? How do I know? 
  • Who is likely to be interested in/ who would like to buy this product? 
  • How do the designers of the advertisement try to make the product  appealing? 
  • What is the meaning of the words they use? Why do they use these  words? 
  • What does the picture (drawing/photograph) show? Why has this picture  been chosen?  
  • If I had the money, would I buy this product? Why or why not?  

 Terms related to advertisements 

  • Slogan: Words that are linked to a product and that are easy  to remember (for example, “Finger-licking good”).
  • Logo: A visual design, sometimes including letters, words  or symbols, that is the official sign of a company or organisation (for example, the Nike tick).
  • Font: The style and shape of printed letters, often especially chosen for emphasis in advertisements or  cartoons.
  • Target market: The type of people an advertisement wants to attract (for example, fashionable young people; wealthy  business people).
  • Layout: The way the advertisement is set out on the page so  that certain words and pictures attract attention.
  • Language use: The choice of words and ways of saying things (for  example, the use of slang to sell jeans to young  buyers; formal language used to sell banking services  to business people; dramatic language used to sell  adventure equipment; repetition used to make the  reader remember the message). 
  • Figures of speech: The use of metaphor, simile, hyperbole (great  exaggeration), onomatopoeia, puns, personification  and alliteration (for example, hyperbole and  alliteration used together: ‘Betty bakes the best buns  in the world’). 
  • Sound devices: Words chosen for the effect of their sounds (for  example, onomatopoeia and alliteration used  together: ‘Shush, baby’s sleeping, it’s time for a  soothing sip of rooibos tea’).  

Analysing advertisements 

  • To answer questions about adverts you need to notice every detail of how the advert is presented.

To answer questions on advertisements, you need to: 

  • Understand what the words in the advertisement mean; and  understand what is shown in the advertisement drawings or  pictures; 
  • Pay attention to how the words and the pictures work together to  persuade the reader to buy a product or do what the advertisement  suggests (for example, a road safety advertisment may ask that  drivers drive slowly); 
  • Understand how the layout of the advertisement and the use of  fonts attracts the reader’s attention; 
  • Pay attention to how punctuation has been used; and 
  • Notice the use of figures of speech.  

Activity 4 

Study the advertisement below and answer the set questions.  

OMEGA AD

  1. Who is the advertisement aimed at? Give a reason for your  answer. (2)
  2. Discuss how the picture used in the advertisement supports  each of the following claims:
    1. ‘Full of Omega 3 & 6 seed goodness.’ (2) 
    2. ‘Seeds are high in essential fats Omega 3 & 6, which are  good for your heart.’ (2)
  3. How is the slogan, ‘LOVE YOUR HEART’, meant to influence  the reader? (2)
  4. Does the advertisement tempt you to buy the product?  Give a reason for your answer. (2)  [10] 
  • Any Two of these  answers to question  2b will earn you 2  marks
  • Question 4 is  an open-ended  question, which  means you should give your  opinion. You must also give  areason for your view. 

Answers to Activity 4 

1. It is aimed at people who are health-conscious ✔ OR people  who want to increase the amount of Omega 3 & 6 in their  diet ✔ OR people who have heart problems ✔ OR people  who want to take care of their hearts. ✔ (1)
AND 
The advertiser claims that the product is filled with Omega 3  & 6 which are very healthy and good for you/ good for your  heart. ✔(1) 
2. 

  1. The picture emphasises how ‘full’ Flora is of ‘seed  goodness’. The seed man’s foot against the tub shows how  hard he is trying to tie the seed goodness into the tub, but  the tub is still bursting open. ✔✔(2)
  2. The seed man has a heart-shaped head.✔ The Flora  logo is heart-shaped.✔ The Heart Foundation logo is a  heart shape.✔ The Flora tub bursting open emphasises  the margarine’s high seed/Omega 3 & 6 content. ✔ This emphasises that seeds are good for your heart. ✔

3. It is meant to persuade readers of the advert to buy Flora by  convincing them that if they are concerned about their hearts  they will use this product. ✔✔ (2) 
4. Yes. It is a product which contains essential fats that we  need/ are good for you. ✔✔ OR  No. I do not believe that you will have a healthy heart just by using this product alone. ✔✔ (2)

[10] 

  • When reading an advert, you must look at the picture and read the words. 

 Activity 5 

Study the advertisement below and answer the set questions.  
romany

  • You can answer ‘yes’ OR ‘no’ to the last  question, but you must support your answer with  a good reason.
  1. Who is the advertisement aimed at? Give a reason for your  answer. (2)
  2. Why are the words ‘Romany Creams … irresistibly delicious’  written in a larger font size? (2) 
  3. How are the following words expected to influence the reader: ‘take your tastebuds travelling to another world …’ ? (2) 
  4.  Would this advertisement tempt you to buy Pyotts Romany  Creams biscuits? Explain why. In your answer, you should  focus on both the pictures used and the written text. (4)  [10] 
  • Question 4 is for 4 marks, so you need to make four points:  two about the picture and  two about the text.
  • For more practice on  advertisements, go to these past exam papers:
    • November 2011, page 9, Question 3
    • Feb/March 2012, page 8, Question 3
    • November 2012, page 9, Question 3
    • Feb/March 2013, page 8, Question 3

Answers to Activity 5 

  1. This advert is aimed at people who like chocolates OR like  having biscuits with their tea or coffee OR people with a  sweet tooth. ✔ (1)
    The advertisement is about chocolate biscuits. ✔ OR The  cups in the picture suggest this would be a good biscuit to  have with a hot drink.✔ OR Chocolate biscuits are sweet. ✔(1)
  2. The big words help to attract the reader’s attention. The  words emphasise how delicious/irresistible these biscuits  are. The words emphasise the name of the biscuits. ✔✔(2)
  3. It convinces the reader that the product is very special and  that this is a delicious biscuit. The taste is better than the  ordinary tastes in this world. ✔✔(2)
  4. Yes. (Picture) The big picture and box make these biscuits  look delicious. The cups in the picture suggest this will be a  good biscuit to have with tea/coffee. ✔✔(2)
    AND
    (Text) The advertisement promises these biscuits are  ‘irresistibly delicious’ and that I will not be able to say no. The  milk chocolate filling tempts me as I love chocolate. There is  a promise that these biscuits have a unique taste and this  will tempt me to buy them.✔✔(2)
    OR
    No. (Picture) The picture does not look appealing to me at  all because I do not like biscuits OR chocolate. Biscuits are  unhealthy. ✔✔(2)
    AND
    (Text) The language used will not persuade me to buy the  biscuits because there are no facts, only opinions. The  language the advertiser has used does not succeed in  persuading the reader to buy the product. ✔✔(2) 

[14]

3.1 What is expected from you   in the exam? 
In the exam, the advertisment question is worth 10 out of 80 marks for  Paper 1.  
The exam question will include an advertisement made up of words and  images. You will be required to answer questions about this advertisement. 
The exam is two hours long and your should spend about 10 minutes on  the advertisment question. 

4. Analysing a cartoon 

A cartoon is a single drawing, often accompanied by words. A cartoon may  be: 

  • Amusing, in order to make us laugh; or 
  • Serious, in order to draw attention to something the cartoonist wants  people to think about (for example, an event that is in the news). 

A cartoon strip is a series of drawings where each separate drawing tells  part of the story. Each separate drawing is called a frame. The story in a  cartoon strip usually builds up to, and ends with, a punch line. A punch line  consists of the last few words of a story which make that story amusing or  clever (or both). In a cartoon strip, both the words and the drawing in the  final frame contribute to the punch line. 
cartoon

Like single cartoons, cartoon strips may also be amusing or serious (or  both). Cartoons and cartoon strips may use satire. Satire makes fun of  people, especially public figures such as politicians, in order to criticise  them. 

  • Satire: Making fun of  people in order to criticise  them.

Cartoons may include people, animals or imaginary creatures, or all three.  Cartoonists (people who draw cartoons) may change or exaggerate some of  the features of these figures. For example, people may have huge heads or  skinny legs, animals may wear clothes and talk. A cartoonist commenting  on current affairs may draw a person’s head bigger than it is in real life,  or emphasise his or her nose, his or her glasses, or his or her hair, for  example. This is called a caricature.  

When you study cartoons or cartoon strips, think about the following: 

  • Is this meant to make me laugh or to think seriously about something,  or to do both? 
  • What do I notice about the body language of each person or animal in  the frames?  
  • What do I notice about the font and size used for the words? 
  • What do I notice about the punctuation? 
  • What connections can I make between the words and the drawings? 

Analysing cartoons 
To answer questions on cartoons, you need to: 

  • Understand the ‘message’ or point of a serious cartoon (i.e. one  that is making a comment about something in society that the  cartoonist is concerned about) and understand the joke in an  amusing cartoon; 
  • Understand that the way people, animals or objects are drawn in  the cartoon affects the meaning of the cartoon (for example, body  language and facial expressions); 
  • Understand how the way words are written in the cartoon (for  example, font size, use of capital letters and bold type) affects  meaning; and  
  • Understand how punctuation is used to affect the meaning of the  cartoon. 
  1. Read and analyse cartoons whenever you get the chance!

Activity 6 

Carefully look at the cartoon below and then answer the questions that  follow.  
Note: The name of the dog in this cartoon is Fred. 

  • Each of the frames in the  cartoon is numbered as  questions are asked about a  particular frame. 

carttoonn ss

  1. Refer to frames 1 and 2 of the cartoon. How does the cartoonist show that the man is angry with  his dog?
    In your answer consider BOTH the man’s body language and  his words. (4)
    • The man’s body  language means  the expression on  his face and what he is do ing with his hands.
  2. Refer to frame 3.
    Why are the words “ ‘MY CHAIR!’ ” repeated? (1)
  3. Refer to frame 4.
    Choose the correct answer to complete the following sentence.  Write down only the question number (3) and the letter (A – D). The sentence “ ‘I switched off ages ago!’ ” suggests that the  dog is …
    1. indifferent.
    2. self-conscious.
    3. embarrassed.
    4. guilty. (1)
  4. Do you find this cartoon humorous? Give a reason for your  answer. (2)  [8] 
    • Humorous: Funny or  amusing; something that  makes you laugh.

HINT! 

  • Your answer must  focus on both the  image and the words for 4 marks.
  • To scold: To tell someone  in an angry way that they  have done something  wrong.

  • Indifferent: Not interested  or not caring about  something. 

Answers to Activity 6 

  1. In the picture: To show he is angry with the dog, the man  waves a finger or hand at the dog in frames 1 and 2. ✔ He  also has an angry look on his face.✔ (2)
    AND
    In the words: The exclamation marks in both frames suggest  he is using an angry tone or shouting at Fred.✔ The use of  capital letters suggests that he is angry. ✔
    The man is scolding Fred and telling him what he has done  wrong. ✔(2) 
  2. The words “MY CHAIR” are repeated to show how angry the  man is with Fred. ✔
    OR
    The man wants Fred to feel really sorry for what he has  done. ✔
    OR
    The man wants to emphasise to Fred that the chair belongs  to him ― not to Fred. ✔(1)
  3. A/indifferent ✔(1)
  4. Yes. The dog stopped listening a long time ago, just as  humans often do. ✔✔
    OR
    Yes. Whatever the man is saying will have no effect on Fred,  just as parents’ words often do not have an effect on their  children. ✔✔commentcomment
    OR
    Yes. The man is becoming very angry but the dog stopped  listening a long time ago. ✔✔
    OR
    No. I feel sorry for the dog because its master does not treat  it well.✔✔(2)

[8] 

  • To get marks, always give a reason for a ‘YES’ or “NO” answer.

Activity 7 

Read the cartoon below and answer the questions that follow. Note: In this cartoon, the man is Hägar and his dog is Snert. 
snert

  1. Refer to frame 3. To whom does the phrase “MY SOMEONE”  refer? (1)
  2. Refer to frame 4. Name TWO ways in which the cartoonist  shows the reader that the dog is very hungry. (2)
  3. Refer to frame 8. 
    1. How does the dog feel at this point? (1)
    2. How do you know this? Mention TWO points. (2) 
  4. Explain how this cartoon makes you feel about Hägar. (2) 
  5. Do you think the cartoon conveys an important message  to readers?  Give a reason for your answer. (2)  [10] 

NB: 

  • To answer  HINT! question 2, look  at the dog’s face.  
  • Also look at what is written  in bold type and the  punctuation in his thought  bubble.
  • Questions 4 and 5 are open-ended questions. An open ended question requires you to  give your own opinion. Support  your opinion with a strong reason. 

Answers to Activity 7 

  1. The word refers to Hägar, the dog’s owner. ✔ (1)
  2. The word “STARVED“ is written in bold font for emphasis.✔ The exclamation mark emphasises the dog’s hunger.✔The dog thinks his master has forgotten his dinner again.✔ The expression on the dog’s face suggests he is sad.✔.  (2) 
  3.                      
    1. He is very happy and full of love for his owner.✔ (1)
    2. His legs are off the ground, suggesting he is running after  his master in excitement.✔The heart shape above his head suggests he is very happy/  loves his master.✔His helmet has flown off his head, suggesting the speed at  which he is following Hägar.✔(2)
  4. I feel angry and disturbed that he shows no care or concern  for his dog, which depends so much on him. ✔✔(2)
  5. Yes. It is important to take take responsibility for your  pets. ✔✔
    OR 
    Yes. The comment being made is that people often take care  of their own needs and neglect their pets. ✔✔
    OR
    No. The cartoon is only meant to entertain. ✔✔(2) 

[10]

Activity 8 
Read the cartoon below and answer the questions.  
Note: In this cartoon, Andy is the man in the striped jersey and Chalkie is  his friend. 
FRAME CARTOON

NB 

To answer both  parts of question  3, look at what the  men are wearing and what  is in the background of frame 1.  

  1. Refer to frame 1. Identify the sport that Andy and Chalkie are  talking about. (1)
  2. Give TWO reasons for your answer to QUESTION 1. (2) 
  3. Refer to frame 1.
    1. Choose the correct word to complete the following sentence: Andy’s feeling towards Chalkie is one of …
      1. affection.
      2. despair.
      3. jealousy.
      4. anger. (1)
    2. Give a reason for your answer to QUESTION 3a. (1)
  4. How do Chalkie’s body language AND facial expression  support his words? (2)
  5. Do you think Chalkie’s apology has had any effect on Andy  throughout the cartoon? Give TWO reasons for your answer. (2)
  6. Refer to frame 2.  Why is the word STOP written in bold capital letters? (1)  [10] 
  • To answer question 5, look at what Andy says with words AND his body  language.
  • Any TWO of these  answers to question  2, 4 and 5 will earn  you 2 marks

Answers to Activity 8 

  1. soccer/football ✔ (1) 
  2.              
    • goal posts in frame ✔
    • corner flag ✔
    • soccer boots ✔
    • soccer clothes ✔
    • use of the words ‘goalpost’ and ‘goalie’ ✔   (2)
  3.                
    1. D/anger  ✔ (1)
    2. Chalkie made them lose the match. ✔ (1)
  4. Body language:
    • An outstretched hand suggests that Chalkie is pleading.✔
    • He is following Andy around.✔
    • His shoulders are slumped and his arm is hanging limply.✔

Facial expression:

  • His eyes are looking downwards.✔
  • His mouth is drooping and turned down.✔ (2)

5. No. Andy never faces Chalkie.✔
OR
No. His facial expression does not change.

OR
No. Andy keeps his arms folded✔
OR
No. Andy’s final answer is abrupt/short and cross. ✔(2) 
6. He is emphasising what Chalkie did not do. (1) 

[10] 

For more practice on cartoons, go to these past exam papers: 

  • November 2011, page 11, Question 4 
  • November 2012, page 11, Question 4 
  • Feb/March 2013, page 10, Question 4 

4.1 What is expected from you   in the exam? 
In the exam, the cartoon question is worth 10 out of 80 marks for Paper 1.  
The exam question will include a cartoon made up of images and words.  You will be required to answer all the questions about this cartoon. 
The exam is two hours long and you should spend about 10 minutes on  the cartoon question. 

5. Language 

This part of Section C is a challenge to prepare for because the examiners  test your knowledge of many different aspects of language: 

  • Grammar 
  • Punctuation 
  • Vocabulary 
  • Spelling 
  • Abbreviations 

In the exam, these aspects of language will be tested by answering  questions based on: 

  • A word extract; and 
  • A picture with a short text. 

This section focuses on the following aspects of grammar, punctuation  and vocabulary: 

5.1 Verb tenses  
5.2 Subject/verb agreement (concord) and singular/plural conversion 
5.3 Verbs in active and passive voice  
5.4 Question tags  
5.5 Direct and indirect speech (reported speech)  
5.6 Negative sentences 
5.7 Combining two short sentences into one longer sentence  
5.8 The apostrophe: when and how to use it  
5.9 Prepositions  
5.10 Vocabulary 

 The meanings of words; knowledge of different forms of the same   word; spelling of words.  

5.11 Language and editing skills in context 
5.12 What is expected of you in the exam? 

HINT:

  • To improve your language skills, read as much English as possible. Reading will improve  your grammar, punctuation,  vocabulary and spelling.
  • Also work through this section carefully. It will help you to revise many rules of language.
  • And look at the Mind the Gap Paper 3: Writing study guide. It gives you  information about how writers use language.

5.1 Verb tenses 
Several of the questions require you to know how the different tenses of  verbs are formed (for example, those on question tags, active and passive  voice, reported speech.) It is a good idea to revise these in your language  textbook.  
Below is a verb tense table for the regular verb ‘to walk’ to help you to  revise the different forms that a regular verb may take in the active voice.  

‘to walk’ 

Present 

Past 

Future 

Conditional

Simple 

  • I walk. 
  • He/she walks.
  • I walked. 
  • He/she walked.
  • I will walk. 
  • He/she will  walk.
  • I would walk 
  • He/she would  walk.

Continuous 

  • I am walking. 
  • He/she is  walking. 
  • We are walking.
  • I was walking. 
  • He/she was  walking. 
  • We were  walking.
  • I will be walking.
  • He/she will be  walking.
  • I would be  walking. 
  • He/she would  be walking.

Perfect 

  • I have walked.
  • He/she has  walked.
  • I had walked. 
  • He/she had  walked.
  • I will have  walked. 
  • He/she will  have walked.
  • I would have  
  • walked. 
  • He/she would  have walked.

Perfect and Continuous

  • I have been  walking.  
  • He/she has  been walking.
  • I had been  walking. 
  • He/she had  been walking.
  • I will have been  walking. 
  • He/she will  have been  walking.
  • I would have  been walking. 
  • He/she would  have been  walking.
  • There are also many irregular verbs, including commonly used verbs such  as ‘to be’, ‘to have’, ‘to eat’, ‘to sing’, ‘to run’ and many others which take  different forms in the various tenses. You need to become familiar with  these by studying them in your language textbook and by noticing them  whenever you read.
  • For the past tense of a regular verb, add ‘ed’ to the end of the present tense verb. For  example, ‘I walked’. You cannot do  this with an irregular verb. For example, the past tense of ‘I eat’ is ‘I ate’ .

Worked examples: Verb tenses 
Sometimes an exam question requires knowledge of the correct  form of the verb in a particular tense. 

  1. Rewrite the following sentence in the past tense:
    • She’s healthy and I love her. (2)
    • Correct answer: She was healthy and I loved her. (2)
    • In the past tense, the contracted form ‘She’s’ (meaning ‘She is’) has to  be written as a full verb (‘was’). ‘To love’ is a regular verb so the past  tense is formed by adding ‘ed’. Because ‘love’ already ends in ‘e’, only  the ‘d’ is added.
  2. Rewrite the sentence in the future tense:
    • She has received numerous humanitarian awards. (1)
    • Correct answer: She will receive numerous humanitarian awards. (1)
    • The future tense requires the use of ‘will’ with the base form of the verb  (‘receive’). 
  3. Rewrite the following sentence in the present tense:
    • I wanted to say I was in awe of him. (2)
    • Correct answer: I want to say I am in awe of him. (2)
    • This question is for 2 marks because two verbs need to change. In this case ‘wanted’ becomes ‘want’ (a regular verb) and ‘I was’ (first  person, past tense) becomes ‘I am’ (first person, present tense of the  irregular verb ‘to be’).  
  • If the question is for 2 marks, you know that there are two changes that need to be made to the sentence.

5.2 Subject/verb agreement   (concord)  

  • Concord: The agreement  between words in a  sentence. For example, if the  noun is plural, the verb is  

In English, all the words in a sentence that have a special kind of ‘connection’  with each other must be in the same form (that is, they must be all singular  or all plural). This special connection is discussed in this section. 
If the noun or pronoun in the subject of the sentence is plural, then the  verb must be plural. If the noun or pronoun is singular, then the verb must  be singular.  
The subject of a sentence is a noun, a pronoun, or a phrase (a group of  words without a verb) which includes a noun. For example: 

  • The policeman (noun) arrested the robbers. 
  • He (pronoun) arrested the robbers. 
  • The tall, strong policeman (phrase) arrested the robbers. 

The exam will test your knowledge of this part of English grammar in two  ways: 

  • By asking you to rewrite a singular sentence in plural form 
  • By asking you to correct an error of subject/verb or pronoun/noun  agreement. 

Worked examples: Subject/verb agreement  (concord) 
Read the examples from past exam papers below. This will help you to  understand this part of English grammar and to answer questions of this  kind correctly in the exam.  

  1. Rewrite the following sentence in the plural form: 
    Note that question  1 is worth 4 marks,  so you need to   make four changes in the  sentence. 

That mother and baby still move in my thoughts. (4)
Correct answer: Those mothers and babies still move in our thoughts.  
To answer correctly you need to know the following: 

  1. The plural form of ‘this’ is ‘these’; and the plural form of ‘that’ is  ‘those’. 
  2. To form the plural of ‘mother’, just add ‘s’; but to form the plural of  ‘baby’, change the ‘y’ to ‘ies’. 
  3. Although ‘thoughts’ is already in plural form, to show that these  are the thoughts of more than one person, change ‘my’ (singular first  person) to ‘our’ (plural first person). 

2. Correct the single error in the following sentence: 
… my heart was in my throat and a thousand thoughts was racing  through my mind. (1) 
Correct answer: … my heart was in my throat and a thousand thoughts  were racing through my mind. 
The noun ‘thoughts’ is plural, therefore it must be followed by the plural  verb form ‘were’, not the singular form ‘was’. 
3. Rewrite the following sentence in the plural form: 
The Minister of Education worked tirelessly. (1) 
Correct answer: The Ministers of Education worked tirelessly.  
The only change you can make to this sentence is to the number of  ministers in the subject. Education is never written with an ‘s’, and in the  past tense the verb has the same form for both singular and plural. The  question is for one mark, so this means only one change is required. 
4. Correct the single error in the following sentence: 
However, it is possibly due to her warm personality that she make an  impact on people. (1) 
Correct answer: However, it is possibly due to her warm personality that  she makes an impact on people.  
‘She’ is a third person singular subject and ‘make’ is a present tense  verb. In English, when the subject is third person singular (for example,  he, she, it, Jabu, Cindy) in the present tense, the verb always ends in ‘s’. 
5. Correct the single error in the following sentence: 
His face were still partially paralysed and he spoke in a soft voice. (1) 
Correct answer: His face was still partially paralysed and he spoke in a  soft voice. 
‘His face’ is a singular subject and so the correct singular past tense  form of the verb ‘to be’ is ‘was’. “Were” is the plural form. 
6. Correct the single error in the following sentence: 
Robert Phipps, a body language expert, tells you how to interpret this  non-verbal clues. (1) 
Correct answer: Robert Phipps, a body language expert, tells you how to  interpret these non-verbal clues. 
To answer correctly you need to know that ‘non-verbal clues’ is plural, so  the correct form is the plural ‘these’, not the singular ‘this’.  
7. Correct the single error in the following sentence: 
Body language make up 50 to 100% of a conversation. (1)
Correct answer: Body language makes up 50 to 100% of a conversation. 
‘Body language’ is singular (i.e. language, not languages) and the  sentence is in the present tense. This means that the third person  singular present tense form of the verb must be used (‘makes’). (1)  
8. Rewrite the following sentence in the plural form: 
When a person is lying, he tends to become generally less  expressive. (4) 

  • An exam question may ask you to correct the single error in a sentence. This will often be a concord error.

 Correct answer: When people are lying they tend to become generally  less expressive. 
The singular subject (‘a person’; ‘he’) must become plural (‘people’;  ‘they’) and the form of the verb must agree with the plural subject (‘are’;  ‘tend’).  

Activity 9 
1. Correct the single error in each of the following sentences: 

1.1 His younger brothers walk to their primary school but Sipho  travel to high school by taxi. (1) 
1.2 Unfortunately the taxi fares is becoming expensive. (1) 
1.3 Sipho is looking for a Saturday job so that he can afford this  higher fares. (1) 

2. Rewrite the following sentences in the plural form: 

2.1 In the procession, the princess walks behind the king  and queen. (4) 
2.2 The conference is being hosted by a government  department. (2)  [9]

Answers to Activity 9 
1.1 His younger brothers walk to their primary school but Sipho  travels to high school by taxi. ✔(1) 
1.2 Unfortunately the taxi fares are becoming expensive. ✔ (1)
1.3 Sipho is looking for a Saturday job so that he can afford these higher fares. ✔
2.1 In the processions, the princesses walk behind the kings and  queens. ✔✔✔✔(4)
2.2 The conferences are being hosted by government  departments. ✔  (2) 

[9]

5.3 Verbs in active and   passive voice 
A verb is in the active voice when its subject does the action. For example:  ‘The striker scored a goal.’ The subject is the striker and the striker is doing  the action. To find the subject of a verb ask who or what does the action. 
A verb is in the passive voice when the subject ‘receives’ the action: ‘The  goal was scored by the striker.’ When a sentence is written in passive voice  it is possible to leave out the ‘doer’ of the action: ‘The goal was scored.’ 

Four steps to change a sentence  from active voice to passive voice: 

  1. Underline the verb in the sentence.
  2. Divide the sentence into a Subject – Verb – Object.
  3. Begin the new sentence with the object.
  4. The verb in the passive voice consists of the past participle form with  some form of the verb ‘to be’ or, occasionally, the verb ‘got’ (for example,  ‘I was stung by a bee’.)  

When you are asked to change a sentence from one voice to the other,  make sure that you keep the tense of the original sentence. For example: 

  • Present continuous tense
    Active voice: The striker is scoring a goal.
    Passive voice: A goal is being scored by the striker.  
  • Perfect tense
    Active voice: The striker has scored a goal.
    Passive voice: A goal has been scored by the striker. 
  • Simple future tense
    Active voice: The striker will score a goal.
    Passive voice: A goal will be scored by the striker. 

Hint/example:

  • ‘I kicked the ball.’
    I am the subject, the ball is the object and kicked is the verb. This is the active voice.
  • For the passive voice, 
    begin the sentence with the object - the ball. The   sentence becomes: ‘The ball was kicked by me.’

Worked examples: Active and  passive voice 
1. Rewrite the following sentence in the passive voice starting with the  given word (or words): 

1.1 Money provides financial freedom. Start with: Financial freedom… Correct answer: Financial freedom is provided by money. 
1.2 Robert is training someone every week. Start with: Someone… Correct answer: Someone is being trained by Robert every week.
1.3 The 18-year-old had developed an illness causing paralysis.  Start with An… 
Correct answer: An illness causing paralysis had been developed by the  18-year-old. 

2. Rewrite the following sentence in the active voice starting with the  given word (or words): 

2.1 Graça Machel is admired greatly by the people of Mozambique.  
Begin your answer with: The people 
Correct answer: The people of Mozambique greatly admire Graça  Machel.  

Activity 10 

  1. Write down what you have noticed about the ways in which a  sentence written in the active voice changes when it is  written in the passive voice. (4)
  2. Rewrite the following sentence in the passive voice starting  with the given word (or words):
    2.1 Thomas Edison invented the electric light bulb in 1879.  The electric light bulb … (1)
    2.2 Police arrested two men yesterday in connection with a  car hijacking. Two men … (1)
    2.3 The Umlazi high school choir won first prize in an  international school choirs’ competition.  First prize …. (1)
  3. Rewrite the following sentence in active voice starting with  the given word (or words):
    3.1 Four rhinos were found dead by members of an  anti-poaching unit. Members … (1)
    3.2 Unusually heavy rainfall has been experienced this year  in the Eastern Cape. The Eastern Cape... (1) 

 [9]

Answers to Activity 10 

1. The order of the words in the sentence changes. ✔
When a sentence is written in passive voice it is often necessary  to add a preposition such as ‘by’. Verbs in the active form have  fewer words than they do in the passive form. ✔
The same tense and form of the verb (for example, present, past,  continuous) is used in both the active and the passive voice  sentences. ✔✔(4) 
2.1 The electric light bulb was invented by Thomas Edison. ✔(1) 
2.2 Two men were arrested yesterday in connection with a car  hijacking. ✔(1)
2.3 First prize in an international school choirs’ competition was won by the Umlazi high school choir. ✔(1)
3.1 Members of an anti-poaching unit found four dead rhinos. ✔(1) 
3.2 The Eastern Cape has experienced unusually heavy rainfall this year. ✔ (1)

[9]

5.4 Question tags 
In English, questions can be asked in various ways. For example, this  can be done by putting one of the ‘W-H’ words (‘Who’, ‘What’, ‘Where’,  ‘When’, ‘Why’) or ‘How’ at the beginning of a sentence. Another way of  asking a question is by adding what is called a question tag at the end of  a statement.  

  • Contraction: A shortened  form of a word; or two  words that are combined  into one. For example,  ‘doesn’t’ is a contraction  of ‘does not’.
  • A question tag comes at the end of a question, doesn’t it?

There are many ways that a sentence written as a statement changes  when a question tag is added to it: 

  • If the verb in the statement is in the negative form, the verb in the tag is  in the positive form.
    Statement: He didn’t always feel this way.
    Question: He didn’t always feel this way, did he?  
  • If the verb in the statement is in the positive form, the verb in the tag is  in the negative form.
    Statement: The blind immigrants were treated badly.
    Question: The blind immigrants were treated badly, weren’t they? 
  • When the verb in the tag is in the negative form, it is written as a  contraction: ‘weren’t’ is correct but “were not” is incorrect in a question  tag.  
  • The verb in the statement and the verb in the question tag must be in  the same tense.
    For example: Graça Machel is a really wonderful person, isn’t she?
    Here, both verbs are in present tense. 
  • Sometimes a different verb needs to be used in the question tag. For example: 
    Most people cross their arms if they are feeling defensive, don’t they?  
  • The subject in the statement changes to a pronoun in the question tag.  For example:
    The blind immigrants were treated badly, weren’t they?
    A singular pronoun is used for a singular subject and a plural pronoun  is used for plural subject.  
  • There must be a comma before the start of the question tag.
  • The question tag must end with a question mark. 

Activity 11 
Change the following sentences into tag questions by filling in the blanks. 

  1. Cyclists should ride in single file on the road, … … (1) 
  2. The traffic police were very busy at the big cycle race, … … (1)
  3. The Tour de France cycle race has been run for 100 years, … … (1)
  4. Professional cyclists shouldn’t have to struggle for  sponsorship, … … (1)
  5. Racing bicycles cost a great deal of money, … … (1)  [5] 

Answers to Activity 11 
1. Cyclists should ride in single file on the road, shouldn’t they? ✔(1) 
2. The traffic police were very busy at the big cycle race, weren’t  they? ✔(1)
3. The Tour de France cycle race has been run for 100 years,  hasn’t it? ✔(1) 
4. Professional cyclists shouldn’t have to struggle for  sponsorship, should they? ✔ (1)
5. Racing bicycles cost a great deal of money, don’t they? ✔(1) 

[5]

5.5 Direct and indirect speech  
Direct speech refers to the actual words spoken or written by someone.  When someone else uses these exact words, that person ‘quotes’ them.  

  • Indirect speech is also called reported speech.

The words are put in quotation marks and all other punctuation marks  used in the sentence will be captured inside these quotation marks. When someone else reports what someone said without using the exact  words, they use indirect or reported speech.  
Read the example of the same sentence written in direct speech and  reported speech. 

Direct speech: 
Nosipho said, “My family will be going to a soccer match next Saturday.”

Reported speech: 
Nosipho said that her family would be going to a soccer match the  following Saturday.  
Here are the differences between the two sentences: 

  • The comma and the quotation marks are not used in reported speech. 
  • The form of the verb changes in reported speech. (In this example, ‘will’  changes to ‘would’.) 
  • The time word changes. (In this example, ‘next’ changes to ‘the  following’.) 
  • The word ‘that’ is used to introduce the new version of the words which  were spoken. 

Rules for changing direct speech to indirect  (reported) speech 

  1. In sentences that start with a present tense verb, only the pronouns  change. For example:
    Direct speech: He says: ‘I am sorry.’
    Reported speech: He says (that) he is sorry.
    In sentences that start with a past tense verb, the tense becomes one  tense ‘older’. The pronouns and time words also change.  For example: 
    Direct speech: He said: ‘I am sick.’
    Reported speech: He said (that) he was sick.
  2. In reported speech there are no quotation marks, but you add a  conjunction such as ‘that’ or ‘whether’. For example:
    Sibongile asked whether I would be going to the party. 
  3. The tenses ‘backshift’ (go back in time) as follows: 
    • The simple present tense changes to the simple past tense.  For example, go /goes becomes went; walk/walks becomes walked.
    • The past simple tense changes to the past perfect tense. For example,  went becomes had gone; walked becomes had walked. 
    • The present perfect tense changes to the past perfect tense.  For example, has gone becomes had gone; has walked becomes had  walked.
    • The present continuous tense changes to the past continuous tense.  For example, am walking becomes was walking. 
  4. Some pronouns change: ‘I’ becomes ‘he’ or ‘she’; ‘we’ becomes ‘they’;  ‘us’ becomes ‘them’; ‘our’ becomes ‘their’. 
  5. In direct speech, punctuation marks are used to show tone of voice or  expression. These are not used in reported speech.
    In reported speech, tone and expression are sometimes shown through  the use of words. 
    For example:
    Direct speech: ‘We’ve won the competition!’ the boys shouted.  Reported speech: The boys shouted that they had won the competition.
  6. Time words change. For example:
    • ‘now’ becomes ‘then’
    • ‘today’ becomes ‘that day’
    • ‘tomorrow’ becomes ‘the next day’
    • ‘last week/month/year’ becomes ‘the week/month/year before’
    • ‘next week/month/year’ becomes ‘the following week/month/year’. 
  7. The words ‘this’ and ‘that’ change to ‘these’ and ‘those’. 

NOTE: 

  • Direct speech  uses quotation  marks; reported speech does not.

 Worked examples: Direct and  indirect speech 
e.g. 

  • The number of  marks after each question  tells you how many  changes you must make  in the sentence.

Rewrite the following sentence in reported speech: 

  1. The young lady said, “I can’t give my baby a good life here.” (4)
    Correct answer: The young lady said that she couldn’t  give her baby a good life there. 
  2. Graça Machel said, “It is something you give a young girl  that can never be taken away.” (3)
    Correct answer: Graça Machel said that it was something  you gave a young girl that could never be taken away. 
  3. He wanted to say, “I will never forget you or your parents  and the sacrifices you have made.” (3)
    Correct answer: He wanted to say that he would never forget  him (OR her) or his (OR her) parents and the sacrifices they  had made.
  4. Yesterday Robert Phipps said, “Mary, your eyes are the  windows to your soul.” (3)
    Correct answer: The previous day (OR The day before) Robert Phipps told Mary that her eyes were the windows to her soul. 

Activity 12 
Rewrite each of the following sentences in reported speech: 

  1.  Nompumelelo said, “My favourite TV programme is Muvhango.” (3)
  2. Mpumi said, “The story has too many characters for me and  so I get confused.” (3)
  3. “Are you planning to watch the programme even though it’s  confusing for you?” Thulani asked. (5) 
  4. “It will depend on whether you can help me understand these  characters,” Mpumi replied. (6)  [17] 

Answers to Activity 12 

  1.  Nompumelelo said that ✔ Muhvango was her ✔ favourite TV programme.  (3) 
  2. Mpumi said that✔ the story had ✔ too many characters for  her and so she got ✔ confused. (3)
  3. Thulani asked whethershewas planning ✔✔ to watch  the programme even though it was✔confusing for her. (5)
  4. Mpumi replied that ✔ it would ✔ depend on whether he  ✔ (OR Thulani) could help her ✔ understand those ✔ characters. (6) 

[17]

5.6 Negative sentences 

In the exam, you may be tested on your knowledge of how to change a  positive statement into a negative one.  

There are many ways that a sentence written as a positive statement  changes when it is written in the negative: 

  • Two words need to be added: (i) a form of the auxiliary verb ‘do’; and  (ii) ‘not’. An auxiliary verb is used with another verb to form negative  sentences or questions or tenses. In English, the auxiliary or helping  verbs are be, have and do.  
  • The tense of the auxiliary verb must be the same as the tense of the  verb in the positive sentence. For example, ‘understands’ becomes  ‘does not understand’ (simple present tense); ‘failed’ becomes ‘did not  fail’ (simple past tense). 
  • In the negative form, the ending of the main verb changes. For example,  ‘excludes’ becomes ‘does not exclude’; ‘failed’ becomes ‘did not fail’.  
  • In the present tense, the third person singular form of the auxiliary verb  ‘do’ is ‘does’.  

Note:

  • In English, the auxiliary or  helping verbs are be, have and do. 

Worked examples: Negative  sentences 
Rewrite the following sentence in the negative: 

  1. The child belongs with her mother.
    Correct answer: The child does not belong with her mother. 
  2. She became a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire.
    Correct answer: She did not become a Dame Commander of the Order  of the British Empire. 
  3. Words failed me.
    Correct answer: Words did not fail me. 
  4. Robert understands body language very well.
    Correct answer: Robert does not understand body language very well.
  5. . A well-balanced diet excludes vegetables. 
    Correct answer: A well-balanced diet does not exclude vegetables.  

Activity 13

  • Note that the negative of a  sentence DOES NOT always  mean the opposite of a  positive sentence.
    For example: ‘He never does  his work.’
    The negative is:’He doesn’t  ever do his work.’
    The opposite would be: ‘He always does his work.’ 

Rewrite each of the following sentences in the negative: 

  1. The guitarist plays very well. (1)
  2. She seems to be really enjoying herself. (1)
  3. Last week the group played in Cape Town. (1)
  4. They travelled there by bus. (1)
  5. Most musicians earn a great deal of money. (1)  [5] 

Answers to Activity 13 

  1. The guitarist does not play very well. ✔ (1)
  2. She does not seem to be really enjoying herself. ✔ (1)
  3. Last week the group did not play in Cape Town. ✔(1)
  4. They did not travel there by bus.✔(1) 
  5. Most musicians do not earn a great deal of money.✔ (1) 

[5]

HINT:

  • It is best not to use contracted forms when making the sentence negative. 
    For example, use ‘cannot’  rather than ‘can’t’

5.7 Combining two short   sentences into one   longer sentence 
It is useful to be able to combine short sentences into longer ones, not only  to answer a question in the Language paper, but when you write a report,  a letter or an essay, for example. 
Here are some ways to join two sentences into a longer one: 

  • When two sentences are combined, pronouns are used in the second  part of the sentence. A sentence can be combined with the word ‘but’.  For example:
    The mother loved her child dearly. Poverty forced the mother to give  the child up for adoption. becomes ‘The mother loved her child dearly but poverty forced her to  give him/her up for adoption.’ 
  • Combine sentences using the word ‘who’. For example:
    Miriam Makeba was one of the greatest performers South Africa has  ever produced. Miriam Makeba spent many years in exile.
    becomes ‘Miriam Makeba, who was one of the greatest performers  South Africa has ever produced, spent many years in exile’.
    A complex sentence always has two clauses: a main and a subordinate  (secondary) clause. Miriam Makeba was one of the greatest  performers South Africa has ever produced is the main clause as it  can stand alone. When you use ‘who’ instead of ‘Miriam Makeba’ in the  second sentence, it becomes who spent many years in exile which is  a subordinate clause as it cannot stand alone. 
    When the subordinate clause comes between the subject (‘Miriam  Makeba’) and the verb in the main clause (‘spent’) there must be a  comma immediately before and immediately after it. For example,  ‘Miriam Makeba, who was one of the greatest performers South Africa  has ever produced, spent many years in exile’. 
  • Combine sentences into a single sentence starting with the word ‘when’.  For example:
    I saw Mark again after his graduation. Mark was feeling great. becomes ‘When I saw Mark again after his graduation, he was feeling  great.’  
  • Combine sentences into a single sentence starting with the word ‘if’. For  example:
    Your health improves. You stop eating junk food. becomes ‘If you stop eating junk food, your health will improve.’ 

NOTE:

  • A combined  sentence is also called  a complex sentence.
  • A clause: A group of  words that contains a verb.  
  • In the second part  of this sentence,  use a pronoun  example: (“he”) instead of repeating  the proper noun (Mark). 

Activity 14 

  1. Combine the following sentences into a single sentence,  using the word ‘although’:
    The organisers expect many people to attend the concert. The tickets are expensive. (2)
    • Never combine two sentences  by just using a comma. Look  carefully at the examples of  the joining words used on  pages 54 and 55 to combine  two sentences.
  2. Combine the following sentences into ONE complex sentence,  using the word ‘which’:
    The province of KwaZulu-Natal is popular with tourists.
    The province has beautiful beaches, game reserves and  majestic mountains. (2)
  3. Combine the following sentences into a single sentence,  using the word ‘if’: 
    You exercise every day.
    You will get fit. (2) 
  4. Combine the following sentences into a single sentence,  beginning with ‘After’:
    The children ate a lot of cake at the party.
    The children felt sick. (2)
  5. Combine the following sentences into ONE complex sentence,  using the word ‘that’:
    The team won the race in record time.
    The team has been training with an Olympic sprinter. (2)  [10] 

Answers to Activity 14 

  1. The organisers expect many people to attend the concert  although the tickets are expensive. ✔✔(2)
  2. The province of KwaZulu-Natal, which has beautiful beaches,  game reserves and majestic mountains, is popular with tourists. ✔✔
    OR
    The province of KwaZulu-Natal, which is popular with  tourists, has beautiful beaches, game reserves and majestic  mountains. ✔✔  (2)
  3. You will get fit if you exercise every day. ✔✔
    OR
    If you exercise every day, you will get fit. ✔✔(2)
  4. After the children ate a lot of cake at the party they  felt sick. ✔✔ 
    OR
    After they ate a lot of cake at the party the children felt sick. ✔✔ (2)
  5. The team that won the race in record time has been training  with an Olympic sprinter. ✔✔
    OR
    The team that has been training with an Olympic sprinter won the race in record time. ✔✔ (2)

[10]

5.8 The apostrophe: when   and how to use it 
In writing, the apostrophe sign (’) is used for two purposes: 
Firstly, the apostrophe is used to show that letters have been left out (for  example, ‘do not’ becomes ‘don’t’; ‘I will’ becomes ‘I’ll’; ‘it is’ becomes  ‘it’s’). Another name for the shortened form of the word is the contracted  form (i.e. the word has shrunk, or contracted).  
Secondly, the apostrophe is used to show that something relates to or  belongs to or is possessed by someone or something (e.g. ‘Sam’s book’;  ‘the players’ uniforms’). In this case the apostrophe is used before the ‘s’  in the singular and after the ‘s’ in the plural.  

Worked examples: The apostrophe 

  1. Why has an apostrophe been used in the underlined word in the  following sentence?
    Mpho’s commitment to education comes from her training as a  teacher. 
    Answer: It shows that the commitment to education belongs to Mpho/  was Mpho’s own (shows ownership).
  2. Rewrite the underlined contracted word in full: 
    When Mark needed to spell a word, he’d nod ‘yes’. 
    Answer: he would. 
    (The first verb in the sentence (‘needed’) is in the past tense, so the  word that you write needs to be in the past tense, as part of the verb  ‘nod’.)
  3. Correct the SINGLE error in the following sentence
    Most of us are comfortable with a few second’s eye contact. Answer: Most of us are comfortable with a few seconds’ eye contact.
    (‘Seconds’ is plural (not one second, but a few seconds), so the  apostrophe to indicate belonging/possession must come after the ‘s’.)
  4. Correct the SINGLE error in the following sentence:
    ‘Have one of these,’ says the tall man, popping open a pod and  shaking it’s contents into my hands. 
    Answer: ‘Have one of these,’ says the tall man, popping open a pod and  shaking its contents into my hands.
    (In this sentence, ‘its’ does not mean ‘it is’. It is a pronoun and therefore  the word does not have an apostrophe.)  

HINT:

  • Note that ‘it’s’  is written with an  apostrophe only  when the writer means ‘it is’. In a sentence such as, ‘The  dog chased its tail’, there is no  apostrophe because ‘its’ does  not mean ‘it is’ here. 

 Activity 15 

  1. Correct the SINGLE error in each of the following sentences:
    1. Please collect the childrens’ medicine from the clinic. (1) 
    2. ‘Mr President, its a great pleasure to meet you,’ the  young girl said. (1) 
    3. The doctors husband does the accounts for her practice  because he is an accountant. (1) 

2. Rewrite only the underlined word in the following sentences  in full: 

  1. I wish you’d asked me. (1)
  2. I could’ve given you a lift. (1) 
  3. Next time we’ll do that. (1)
  4. You can’t rely on the bus being on time. (1)
  5. You’re right about that! (1)  [8]

Answers to Activity 15 

  1.                      
    1. Please collect the children’s medicine from the clinic. ✔ (1)
      (In this sentence the medicine belongs to the children and  the apostrophe indicates this ownership.) 
    2. ‘Mr President, it’s a great pleasure to meet you,’ the young  girl said.3 (In this sentence ‘it’s’ is a shortened (contracted)  form of ‘it is’.)
    3. The doctor’s husband does the accounts for her practice  because he is an accountant. ✔ (The ‘doctor’s husband’  means the husband of the doctor – ownership is shown by  means of the apostrophe.)  (1)

2

  1. you had ✔ (1)
  2. could have ✔ (1)
  3. we will ✔ (1) 
  4. cannot ✔ (1)
  5. you are ✔(1)

[8]

5.9 Prepositions 
A preposition is a kind of linking word. Prepositions link nouns with other  nouns, or pronouns. They are used to express several kinds of meaning.  
Here are some examples of prepositions: 

  • Possession (having):
    The books of the student (books and student are linked). The house with a red roof (house and roof are linked). 
  • Time:
    Two days before the weekend (‘days’ and ‘weekend’ are linked). At soccer practice after school (‘soccer practice’ and ‘school’ are linked). 
  • Direction:
    He ran towards the taxi rank (‘he’ and ‘taxi rank’ are linked).  A metre to the left (‘metre’ and ‘left’ are linked). 
  • Position:
    She is under the table (‘she’ and ‘table’ are linked).
    The furniture beside the window (‘furniture’ and ‘window’ are linked).  
  • Place:
    The party at my house (‘party’ and ‘house’ are linked).
    The shoes beneath the bed (‘shoes’ and ‘bed’ are linked). 

Hint:

  • An easy way to remember prepositions is to  think of the word position:  where people and things are in relation to one another.

Worked examples: Prepositions 

  1. Choose the correct word from those given in brackets:
    The guards of the security company had to appear (in/before) court  the next day.
    Answer: in
    (This is a tricky question! The phrase ‘in court’ refers to the place where  the guards had to appear. If the sentence had included ‘the’ before  court, it would refer to the people (lawyers, judges, etc.) and then the  correct answer would be ‘before the court’.)
  2. Choose the correct word to complete the following sentence.
    Write down only the question number and the letter (A – D). 
    Graça Machel has been an inspiration … women around the world. 
    1. for
    2. to
    3. by
    4. with
      Answer: 2 B
  3. Correct the SINGLE error in the following sentence:
    His parents insisted he was a fighter; he would get through this and go onto attend university.
    Answer: His parents insisted he was a fighter; he would get through  this and go on to attend university. (When it is written as one word, the  preposition ‘onto’ describes movement to a position on the surface of  something: ‘The cat jumped onto the table’.)
  4. Complete the following sentence by writing down only the missing word:
    Research has shown that a diet without meat is associated … a lower  risk of diabetes, heart disease, hypertension and some cancers.
    Answer: with
    (In English, the word ‘associated’ is usually followed by the preposition  ‘with’. For example: ‘Two benefits usually associated with exercise are  increased fitness and improved sleeping habits.’) 

Hint:
The more you read English, the more practice you will get in using  prepositions correctly. 
The preposition ‘in’ is used  with the name of a town or  city. The preposition ‘at’ is  used for a particular place,  for example, ‘at my house’ or  ‘at the club house’.

Activity 16 

  1. Choose the correct word to complete the following sentence: The money was hidden _____ the mattress. 
    1. on
    2. . under 
    3. at 
    4. by (1)
  2. Choose the correct word to complete the following sentence: My sister will come ______ me to the meeting. 
    1. for 
    2. to 
    3. with 
    4. beside (1)
  3. Choose the correct word from those given in brackets: The meeting will be held (at / in) Johannesburg on Saturday. (1)  [3] 

Answers to Activity 16 

  1.  a. under ✔ (1) 
  2. c. with ✔ (1)
  3. 3. in ✔

[3]

5.10 Vocabulary 
The meanings of words; knowledge of  different forms of the same word; spelling of  words and degrees of comparison 
In this section of the exam there are usually some grammar questions that  require you to know:  

  • The meaning of particular words; 
  • How a word changes its form as a noun, verb, adjective or adverb.
    For example, ‘competition’ (noun); ‘compete’ (verb); ‘competitive’  (adjective); ‘competitively’ (adverb); 
  • The correct spelling of words; 
  • Synonyms (words similar in meaning);
    Antonyms (words opposite in meaning);
    Homophones (words that sound the same but are spelt differently and  have different meanings); and
    Homonyms (words spelt and pronounced the same way, but with  different meanings); and 
  • What abbreviations and acronyms stand for. 

Worked examples: Vocabulary 

  1. Correct the SINGLE error in the following sentence:
    ‘She’s healthy and I Iove her,’ she continued calm.
    Answer: ‘She’s healthy and I Iove her,’ she continued calmly.
    (The word ‘calm’ is an adjective, but in this sentence the adverb ‘calmly’  is required because it describes how the woman continued speaking,  i.e. it adds further information to the verb ‘continued’.) 
  2. Give the correct form of the words in brackets:
    According to the mother, her baby is the (beautiful) of all those at the  centre.
    Answer: most beautiful
    (The mother is comparing her baby to the many babies at the centre.  The degrees of comparison for the adjective ‘beautiful’ are: beautiful;  more beautiful; most beautiful. So the superlative form of the adjective  ‘beautiful’ must be used: ‘most beautiful’, as this is the most beautiful  baby of them all!)
  3. Correct the SINGLE error in the following sentence:
    The teacher never lost patients, even though the class was often  rowdy.
    Answer: The teacher never lost patience, even though the class was  often rowdy.
    (‘Patients’ and ‘patience’ have been confused because they are  homophones (words which sound the same but are spelt differently and  Question 4 tests your dictionary skills!have different meanings). 
  4. Choose the correct dictionary entries from the following list to complete  the sentence below.
    • immobile adj. 1. not moving 2. not able to move
    • DERIVATIVES immobility n
    • immobilise verb to make something unable to move or work
    • DERIVATIVES immobilisation n
      Mark’s illness caused him to become (a) … . However, this (b) ... did  not prevent him from being successful.
      Answer: (a) immobile (b) immobility
  5. Correct the SINGLE error in the following sentence:
    If you are training someone, it is usefull to know how his mind works.
    Answer: If you are training someone, it is useful to know how his mind  works.
    (The word ‘full’ (meaning containing as much or as many as possible)  is spelt with a double ‘ll’. Words that end in ‘ful’ for example, ‘useful’,  ‘beautiful’, ‘dreadful’, ‘wonderful’ have only one ‘l’.)
  6. Give the correct form of the words in brackets:
    Robert Phipps has (information) us about the importance of studying  someone’s eyes closely.
    Answer: informed
    (The answer has to be part of the verb ‘has _____’, so the noun  ‘information’ has to change to ‘informed’.)
  7. Give the correct form of the words in brackets:
    Having enough money makes you (a) (independence). The more  money you have, the (b) (happy) you might be.
    Answer: (a) independent (b) happier
    (‘independent’ is an adjective that can be used to describe a person.  ‘happier’ is correct because the comparative form of the adjective  ‘happy’ is needed - ‘the more… the happier’.) 

Activity 17 

  1. Correct the single error in the following sentence:
    After the call he said: “Now, where were we?” as if he’d  just orded a cup of tea. (1) 
  2. Give the correct form of the words in brackets:
    1. (Adopt) a child requires a great deal of love, commitment and 
    2. (responsible). (2)
  3. Correct the SINGLE error the following sentence:
    Graça Machel is the only women in history ever to be  married to two presidents. (1)
  4. Give the part of speech of the underlined word in the following  sentence. Write down only the question number (4) and  the letter (A–D).
    She campaigned endlessly to improve the literacy rate  of children in her country.
    1. Noun
    2. Verb
    3. Adverb
    4. Adjective (1)
  5. Give the correct form of the words in brackets: 
    Machel believes that (education) girls is very important. (1)
  6. Rewrite the underlined abbreviation in the following sentence  in full:
    Robert Phipps is a body language expert on a TV show. (1)
  7. Study the following sentence: He stopped eating meat. Use a homophone for the word ‘meat’ in a sentence of your own. (1)
  8. Form suitable nouns from the words in brackets:
    She sees expensive items in her (a) (imagine), but she must  remember that she cannot buy (b) (happy). (2)  [10] 

Answers to Activity 17 

  1. After the call he said “Now, where were we?” as if he’d just ordered a cup of tea. ✔ (1)
  2. Adopting, responsibility ✔✔(2) 
  3. Graça Machel is the only woman in history ever to be married  to two presidents.✔ (1) 
  4. C ✔(1)
  5. educating ✔(1)
  6. television ✔(1)
  7. I will meet you at the post office ✔(1)
    (Any sentence with the word ‘meet’ can be written here.)
  8. (a) imagination✔ (b) happiness ✔(2)
    (In English, many abstract nouns, such as ‘imagination’ and  ‘happiness’, end in ‘-ion’, ‘–tion’ or ‘–ness’.) 

[10]

HINT:

  • Grow your  vocabulary! The more  words you know, the more  you will enjoy  reading. 

5.11 Language and editing   skills in context 
In the language and editing section of the exam, you will be tested on your  grammar, punctuation and vocabulary skills by answering questions based  on: 

  • A prose (word) extract; and 
  • A picture with a short text. 

Here is an example of a prose extract and a picture question from a past  exam paper. 

Activity 18 
Read the following passage, which contains some deliberate errors, and  then answer the questions.  

HINT! 

  • Check each  language aspect  to find the errors  in question 2. They may  be spelling, punctuation or concord errors.

WHY KINDNESS IS GOOD FOR YOU 

The idea of a universal bond of sharing connects all humanity –  ubuntu – is as old as the hills in black South African culture.  
Imagine, for a minute, a world were everyone is just a little kinder.  When you are trying to merge into traffic, someone let’s you in. At the  supermarket, you allow a person in a hurry to go ahead of you in the  5 checkout queue. You get back to your car and find someone have  put money in the parking meter. A new theory called “survival of the  nicest” says that because of kindness, the human race prospered as  a species.  10 Kindness is good for you in other ways. Studies have found that  helpful people are less likely to fall ill from chronic disease and tend  to have better immune systems. “A strong correlation exists between  the well-being, happiness and health of people who are kind,” wrote  Professor Stephen Post.  15 
Kindness has another simalarity with happiness: it cannot be bought.  Kindness, then, is just a matter of choice. It is an attitude you carry  with you that can make a difference, however small, in someone’s life.  NB

[Adapted from Reader’s Digest, January 2009]  

  1. Rewrite the following sentence in the past tense: 
    The idea of a universal bond of sharing connects all humanity. (1) 
  2. Correct the SINGLE error in each of the following sentences: 
    1.  Imagine, for a minute, a world were everyone is just a little  kinder. (1)
    2. When you are trying to merge into traffic, someone let’s  you in. (1)
    3. You get back to your car and find someone have put money  in the parking meter. (1)
    4. Kindness has another simalarity with happiness. (1) 
  3. Rewrite the following idiomatic expression in its original form: Survival of the nicest (1)
  4. Complete the following sentence in the singular form, starting  with the given words:
    Studies have found that helpful people are less likely to fall ill.  A study has found that a helpful ... (2)
  5. Rewrite the following sentence in reported speech:  Professor Stephen Post wrote, “A strong correlation exists  between happiness and health.” (2)
  6. Combine the following sentences into a single sentence using  the words “not only”: 
    Kindness is a matter of choice.
    Kindness is an attitude. (2) 
  7. Rewrite the following sentence in the negative form: Kindness makes a difference in your life. (1)
  8. Identify a noun in the following sentence:
    Kindness can make a difference. (1)  [14] 

Answers to Activity 18 

  1. The idea of a universal bond of sharing connected all  humanity.  ✔ (1)
  2.                        
    1. were – correct answer: where ✔(1)
    2. let’s – correct answer: lets ✔ (1)
    3. have – correct answer: has  ✔ (1)
    4. simalarity – correct answer: similarity  ✔ (1)
  3. Survival of the fittest ✔ (1)
  4. A study has found that a helpful person is less likely to fall ill. ✔ ✔ (2)
  5. Professor Stephen Post wrote that a strong correlation existed between happiness and health.  ✔ ✔ (2)
  6. Kindness is not only a matter of choice but (it is) also an  attitude. ✔ ✔
    OR
    Not only is kindness a matter of choice but (it is) also an  attitude. ✔ ✔
    OR
    Kindness is not only an attitude but (it is) also a matter of  choice. ✔ ✔
    OR
    Not only is kindness an attitude but (it is) also a matter of  choice.  ✔ ✔(2)
  7. Kindness does not make a difference in your life.  ✔(1)
  8. Kindness OR difference ✔ (1)

[14]

HINT:

  • An idiomatic expression or idiom: An expression  whose meaning is different  from the literal meaning of  the words. 
  • In question 5, remember that reported  speech is indirect speech. It does not use any quotation marks.

Activity 19: Picture and text 

 legs

We can find partnerships in unlikely places. Since 1993 South Africans have  collected 950 000 tons of cans from our surrounding environment. However, we  can increase this recovery rate and further conserve and sustain the environment.  Recycle cans today. Sustain tomorrow. 

[Adapted from Simply Green, Issue 4, 2012]  

HINT:

  • Antonym: A word that  means the opposite of a  given word.
  •  In question 4  ‘conserve’ is a  verb. To answer the  question, you need to find the  noun form of this word. 

QUESTIONS

  1. Change the following question into a tag question: We can find partnerships in unlikely places. (1)
  2. Write down an antonym for the underlined word in the following  sentence: 
    We can increase this recovery rate. (1)
  3. Choose the correct answer from the brackets:
    Since 1993, we have collected no (few/fewer) than 950 000  tons of cans. (1)
  4. Give the correct form of the word in brackets:
    The (conserve) of the environment is important. (1)
  5. Rewrite the following sentence in the passive voice, starting  with the given words:
    We can keep our country beautiful. 
    Start with: Our country....
  6. Choose the correct answer to complete the following sentence.
    Write down only the question number (6) and the letter (A-D) of the correct answer.
    Recycle cans today. Sustain tomorrow.
    This is an example of ........ language.
    1. persuasive
    2. manipulative
    3. sarcastic
    4. biased  (1)[6]

Answers to activity 19.

  1. We can find partnerships in unlikely places, can't we/ can we not? ✔ (1)
  2. decrease or reduce ✔ (1)
  3. less ✔ (1)
  4. conservation (noun)✔ (1)
  5. Our country can be kept beautiful (by us) ✔ (1)
  6. A/persuasive ✔ (1) [6]

5.12 What is expected from you in the exam?
In the exam, the language and editing skills section is worth 20 marks out of 80 marks for paper 1
This section is made up of two parts.

  • A written extract of 150 – 200 words.written extract of 150 – 200 words.This part is worth 14 marks.You will be required to answer a set of questions based on the extractthat test your language and editing skills.
  • A picture with a short text.A picture with a short text.This part is worth 6 marks.You will be required to answer a set of questions based on the pictureand text that test your language and editing skills.

The exam is two hours long and your should spend about 20 minutes onspend about 20 minutes onthe language and editing skills questions.

For more practice on language and editing skills, go to these past exam papers:

  • November 2010, page 10,Question 5
  • Feb/March 2011, page 12,Question 5
  • November 2011, page 13,Question 5
  • Feb/March 2012, page 12,Question 5
  • November 2012, page 13,Question 5.1 and 5.2
  • Feb/March 2013, page 12,Question 5.1 and 5.2
Last modified on Tuesday, 27 July 2021 06:32