3.1 Format of the Hospitality Studies question paper 
3.2 Cognitive levels and weighting of the external question paper 
3.3 Bloom's revised taxonomy explained 
3.4 Features and expectations of higher-order thinking 
3.5 Scaffolding of questions  
4.1 Clarity of some content  
5.1 Guidance for learners: answering of question papers 
5.2 Teaching and learning: concepts and terminology 
5.3 Recommended resource material  

The Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) for Engineering Graphics and Design outlines the nature and purpose of the subject Engineering Graphics and Design. This guides the philosophy underlying the teaching and assessment of the subject in Grade 12.
The purpose of these Examination Guidelines is to:

  • Provide clarity on the depth and scope of the content to be assessed in the Grade 12 National Senior Certificate (NSC) Examination in Engineering Graphics and Design.
  • Assist teachers to adequately prepare learners for the NSC examinations.

This document deals with the final Grade 12 external examinations. It does not deal in any depth with the School-based Assessment (SBA), Performance Assessment Tasks (PATs) or final external practical examinations as these are clarified in a separate PAT document which is updated annually.
These Examination Guidelines should be read in conjunction with:

  • The National Curriculum Statement (NCS) Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS): Engineering Graphics and Design
  • The National Protocol of Assessment: An addendum to the policy document, the National Senior Certificate: A qualification at Level 4 on the National Qualifications Framework (NQF), regarding the National Protocol for Assessment (Grades R–12)
  • The national policy pertaining to the programme and promotion requirements of the National Curriculum Statement, Grades R–12
  • The Abridged Section 4 of the Grade 12 CAPS Amendments.

The final mark for Hospitality Studies includes the following (CAPS p. 61):

  • School-based assessment (formal tests/examination, skills tests and practical lessons) (25%)
  • Practical Assessment Task (25%)
  • Final theory examination (50%)

The instructions for the Practical Assessment Task and the theory examination paper will be set externally by the Department of Basic Education.
The goal of this document is not to provide exemplar questions and answers for examination purposes; previous National grade 12 examination papers and marking guidelines can be used for this purpose.

3.1 Format of the Hospitality Studies question paper

  • A three-hour question paper is written for 200 marks in Grade 12 at the end of the year.
  • Only grade 12 content will be assessed. However, prior knowledge acquired in Grades 10 and 11 may also be necessary to interpret and answer some of the questions.

Layout of the external question paper

 SECTION A  1 Short questions (all topics)
Multiple choice
One word/term




 SECTION B  2 Kitchen and restaurant operations
Hygiene, safety and security 
 SECTION C  3,4 Nutrition and menu planning
Food commodities 
 80(2 x40)
 SECTION D  5,6 Sectors and careers
Food and beverage service 
 60(2 x 30)
   TOTAL   200

The weighting of marks allocated to the topics in SECTIONS B, C and D are guided by the volume of content under each subtopic.
Example: Nutrition and Menu Planning has three subtopics while Commodities has seven subtopics.
Types of questions

  • Multiple-choice
  • Matching items
  • One-word/term items
  • Scenario-based questions
  • Selection/Identification
  • Rearrange
  • Sequencing of concepts
  • Identification of pictures/drawings/photos (source-based responses)
  • Analysis/Interpretation of illustrations/graphs/tables with data
  • Medium-response questions
  • Long-response questions


  • The topics are integrated in the questions.
  • True/False and missing-word questions will NOT be included in the external question paper.
  • Ensure that learners are prepared for the examination to:
    • Write answers in full sentences
    • Understand how to interpret the action verb used in the question
    • Demonstrate the ability to complete the instruction given by the action verb in the response
    • Use the marks allocated for the question to guide the formulation of the response

3.2 Cognitive levels and weighting of the external question paper

Lower order:
 30%  60
Middle order:
Understanding (20%)
Applying (30%) 
 50%  100
Higher order:
Analysing, evaluating and creating 
 20%  40

3.3 Bloom's revised taxonomy explained

Lower order  Remembering  Write; select; memorise; recall; recognise; label; name; locate; identify; examine; find; list; quote; arrange; define; describe; give example; reproduce  Remembering something previously learned; recognise; recall relevant information; recite facts; define and describe basic facts; straight recall from a textbook; explain particular terminology; identify answers from a text/case study/picture 

Examples of lower-order questions: Remember
Various options are provided as possible answers to the following questions. Choose the answer and write only the letter (A–D) next to the question numbers (1.1.1 to 1.1.10) in the ANSWER BOOK, e.g., 1.1.11 D.
1.1.1 The technique of pouring warm brandy over crêpes Suzette and setting it alight is called …

  1. frappé.
  2. fromage.
  3. flambé.
  4. fumet. (1)

1.2.1 Select FOUR white wine cultivars. Write only the letters (A–H) next to the question number (1.2.1) in the ANSWER BOOK.

  1. Pinot Noir
  2. Colombar
  3. Shiraz
  4. Chenin Blanc
  5. Chardonnay
  6. Merlot
  7. Cabernet Sauvignon
  8. Sauvignon Blanc (4)

1.3 Name TWO types of glasses that a waiter will use when serving non-alcoholic beverages. (2)
1.4 Define the term flambé. (2)

Middle Order Understanding Retell; report; explain; identify; describe; summarise; discuss; interpret; tabulate; classify; recognise; reorganise Demonstrate a basic understanding of concepts and curriculum.
Express in other words; make own meaning.
Match information
Categorise information
  Applying Adapt, arrange, calculate, decide and apply, execute, demonstrate, interpret, illustrate, explain how/why, locate and describe, predict, identify and describe, show, implement, prepare, solve, convert, sort information, choose a particular action Interpret and apply knowledge.
Choose, collect and classify information.
Modify and use existing knowledge
Draw information from a given text.
Examples of middle-order questions: Understanding and Applying
1.1 Summarise the preparation of choux pastry in FOUR steps. (4)
1.2 Briefly explain the function of the following ingredients in the preparation of puff pastry:
1.2.1 Salt (1)
1.2.2 Fat (3)
Higher order Analysing Analyse; calculate; classify; categorise; compare; solve; relate; deconstruct; detect; appraise; separate; distinguish/differentiate; identify and describe similarities and differences; interpret case studies; sort; select most appropriate Analyse information in a new or unfamiliar context; solve problems based on unfamiliar contexts; use reasoning to solve non-routine problems; identify the problem and then use appropriate methods to solve the problem; solve non-routine problems based on real contexts.
Distinguish between aspects; compare and explain
  Evaluating Judge; evaluate; criticize; give an opinion; assess; give a viewpoint; conclude; critique information; debate; provide a solution; motivate; support; justify; rank/rate; prioritise; recommend; verify; reject; revise; score; argue; defend an opinion Make judgements; critique and make recommendations; weigh possibilities and make recommendations; judge the value of something using criteria
  Creating/ synthesising Compose; design; create; invent; organise; compile; integrate; predict/forecast; modify the existing into new; develop; formulate; improve Synthesise; formulate new ideas; create or find innovative solutions; use critical argument linked to abstract texts; fully substantiate answers; work with complex problems involving insight.

Examples of higher-order questions: Analysing, Evaluating and Creating
1.1 Study the menu below and answer the questions that follow.

Prawn Cocktail
Consommé Royal
Beef Wellington with Red Wine Sauce
Duchesse Potatoes
Glazed Vegetables
Mixed Berry Jelly
26 November 2021

1.1.1 Evaluate the suitability of the menu for people with a high cholesterol level. (4)
1.1.2 Recommend a suitable cover for the menu above. (1)
1.1.3 Justify why the menu above is suitable for a formal dinner. (3)
1.1.4 Predict which dish will not be eaten by Muslim guests. Motivate your answer. (2)
1.2 Study the extract below and answer the questions that follow.
An area next to Binfield, on the way to Hogsback, was identified as a tourist destination some years ago. Community members were moved and houses were destroyed. The municipality was to develop the area. A dam and a restaurant were built. The municipality had a business plan for the Binfield restaurant which included a cover page, business address and the products they intended to offer. Ten years have passed, the dam is quiet and no tourists are attracted to the area as promised.
Evaluate the Binfield business plan that was compiled by the municipality. (8)
1.3 Create a label for a preserved product to sell at a food market. (8)

3.5 Scaffolding of questions
Within each question, the subquestions should progress from the easy to the more difficult.

3.4 Features and expectations of higher-order thinking

  • Requires the learner to engage with unrehearsed or unfamiliar texts
  • Requires deep thinking
  • Includes the assessment of critical, logical, reflective, and creative thinking
  • Is grounded in lower-order skills and linked to prior knowledge of subject matter or content which means the learner needs the foundational knowledge on which to expand
  • Requires learners to generate the information needed to answer the question from their knowledge base and resources provided
  • Requires the teacher to present the learner with unfamiliar problems, uncertainties, questions or dilemmas
  • Confronts the learner with a story, scenario, case study, problem, issue, unexpected situation or photos in order to link the theory to real life situations
  • The ability to put parts together to form a new whole. This may involve the production of a unique communication (marketing tool or product), a plan of operations (business plan or quotation), or reasoning.

NOTE: Although it is necessary for teachers and learners to focus on the Grade 12 content, they need to have a thorough understanding of the content covered in Grades 10 and 11.
4.1 Clarity of some content
For detailed CONTENT information, refer to the CAPS document.
NOTE: Menu planning should be taught in conjunction with commodities and the topics below:

  • Jews, Muslims, Hindus
  • South African dishes/products/ingredients, e.g. meat (e.g. mogodu, skop, skilpadjies, bobotie, sosaties), desserts (trifle, malva pudding), preserves (atchar, chakalaka, chutney, quince jelly, etc.)
  • Allergies
  • High cholesterol
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Different vegetarians, e.g. ovo-vegetarian, lacto-ovo vegetarian

Menus will include formal dinners, banquets and cocktails.
The Food Pyramid for Nutritional Value
The learner must know where the food commodity is placed on the food pyramid and the nutritional value of the highest nutrient found in the commodity. Some products may belong to more than one food group, e.g. Pavlova is made of egg whites and sugar and will therefore belong to the meat alternative group as well as the fats, oils and sweets group. When fresh fruit is added as a filling it will also include the fruit group.
Choux pastry
The learner must be familiar with the products prepared from choux pastry:

  • Profiteroles and cream puffs: a filled choux pastry ball with a sweet and moist filling of whipped cream, custard, pastry cream, or ice cream.
  • Croquembouche: a French dessert consisting of choux pastry balls piled into a cone and bound with threads of caramel.
  • Éclairs: an oblong pastry made with choux dough filled with a cream and topped with icing or chocolate.
  • French crullers: a fluted, ring-shaped doughnut made from choux pastry with a light airy texture
  • Beignets: the French term for a pastry made from deep-fried choux pastry.
  • Gateau St. Honoré: this classic French dessert has a circle of puff pastry at its base with a ring of choux piped on the outer edge. After the base is baked small cream puffs are dipped in caramelized sugar and attached side by side on top of the circle of choux.
  • Paris Brest: it is made with a large ring of choux pastry that is sprinkled with almonds and filled with praline-flavoured cream.
  • Gougères/French cheese puffs: a baked savoury choux pastry made of choux dough mixed with cheese


  • Types of gelatine including vegan options
  • How to use gelatine (phases of gelatine preparation, handling of gelatine e.g. moulding, unmoulding)
  • Factors that influence gel formation, including the addition of certain ingredients
  • Incorporate gelatine with desserts

Preserved foods
The learner must be familiar with:

  • The techniques/methods of preserving food at home and those suitable for entrepreneurial opportunities.
  • The products: smoked meat of fish, chutney, jam, fruit jellies, chakalaka, sauces, fruit curd, and fruit (crystallised and bottled).
  • The interpretation and design of labels for preserved food products.

Preserves form part of a variety of dishes and should be incorporated with cocktail snacks, meat dishes and even desserts.
Non-alcoholic beverages


  • Alcohol-free wine or de-alcoholised wine
  • Fortified wines (examples such as dessert wines, sherry and port but not the different types of sherry and port)

Non-alcoholic Beverages

  • Types of non-alcoholic beverages e.g., carbonated waters, mineral waters, squashes, cordials, juices, and syrups, etc.
  • Introduce the term mocktails/virgin drinks
  • General rules for mixing mocktails (no specific mocktails, only non-alcoholic)
  • Methods of preparation: shaken, blended, stirred, built/layered
  • Serving of coffee and tea

The learner must be familiar with:

  • How the hospitality sector/entrepreneurship contributes to the South African Economy.
  • The different opportunities for self-employment/entrepreneurship. Introduce latest trends in entrepreneurial ventures e.g., food truck, crafters food markets, pop up restaurants, meals to go, personal chef, food delivery, online cooking classes etc.
  • Designing and evaluating a business plan for entrepreneurial opportunities: include the SWOT analysis to evaluate the business venture.
  • Marketing concepts and terminology.
  • Designing and presenting a marketing tool to promote a product.

5.1 Guidance for learners: Answering of question papers

  • Work through previous question papers in preparation of the final examination.
  • Familiarise yourself with the different types of questions and make sure you understand how to answer the different types of questions.
  • Familiarise yourself with the layout of the paper and how to manage the time effectively per question.

5.1.1 Instructions

  • Answer ALL the questions in the exam paper: There are NO choice questions.
  • Answer all the sections on the FOLIO PAPER provided. In the final examination you will be provided with an answer book.
  • Number the questions according to the numbering system used in the exam paper: ensure that your answers are numbered correctly and align with the numbering in the question paper.
  • Use the first page of the folio paper for Section A: Short questions.
  • Provide only one answer per line.
  • Write numbers below each other and not next to each other.
  • Do not leave a line open in between answers.
  • Correct example:
  • Leave a line open before starting a new section, e.g. between Sections B and C
  • Indicate the start of a new question e.g., QUESTION 2 in the middle of the page.
  • Number the individual questions along the left side margin of the page.
  • Start each question on a new page: Rule off at the end of Question 2, turn the page and start with Question 3, etc.
  • Set out your answer clearly by writing in a clear and legible manner: Untidy, illegible writing may result in losing unnecessary marks.
  • Each paper consists of a certain number of pages which is indicated on the front cover page of the question paper. Count the number of pages to see if it corresponds and ensure that all pages are clear and complete.

5.1.2 How to approach the question paper:

  • Read through the question paper and take note of the number of sections (A-D) and questions (1–6).
  • Read through all the questions before attempting to answer any questions. Read attentively during the reading time and make quick notes after the reading time.
  • Decide which questions will be easier to answer first
  • Allocate the time you will spend on a question so that you do not run out of time at the end.


Section A   1 40  30 minutes 
Section B   2  20  20 minutes
   3  40  35 minutes
   4  40  35 minutes
   5  30  30 minutes
   6  30  30 minutes
TOTAL    200 180 minutes = 3 hours
  • If you do not know an answer, move on to the next question.
  • Time saved on questions can be used at the end to go back to the questions that were challenging. Try not to leave blank, open spaces.
  • Stay focused and work until the end of the examination session to use the time effectively.
  • Make sure that NO questions have been left out.

5.1.3 How to approach the questions:

  • First read the instruction at each question to properly formulate your answer.
  • Each subsection for Question 1 is a different type of question, e.g. matching columns or writing ONE word/term.
  • Long questions 2–6 may include a variety of instructions such as writing a paragraph, designing a label or tabulating the answer.
  • Underline or highlight the action verb in each question. The verb gives the instruction and indicates what is expected in the response.
  • Take note of the mark allocation per question: the mark allocation is an indication of the number of facts required to obtain the marks for the question:
    • Where a specific number of facts are required e.g. List THREE …, only the first three facts will be marked.
    • However, with questions such as explain, discuss, motivate, evaluate, etc. learners can write as much as they need to explain themselves or to answer the question.
  • Where items such as menus, pictures, illustrations, case studies or scenarios are given:
    • First read/study the instruction
    • Then study the item provided, e.g. paragraph, picture, extract.
    • Read each of the questions that follow and keep the given scenario/context in mind when answering the question.

5.2 Teaching and learning: concepts and terminology
The Hospitality Studies content includes concepts and terminology specific to the subject. Every lesson should include an explanation of the terminology pertaining to the topic or sub-topic.
Writing out the concepts/terminology on the board/making a word wall or PowerPoint slide allows the learner to see the spelling of the concepts/terminology.
Bloom's Taxonomy: Descriptive/Action Verbs
Teachers must assist the learner to gain the following:

  • A clear understanding of the descriptive/action verbs of Blooms taxonomy. (By not being familiar with the Bloom's Taxonomy descriptive/action verbs many unnecessary marks may be lost by the learner)
  • When answering a question that includes different layers of cognitive demand, it is import to first breakdown the question to determine the:
    • Action verb and the instruction implied
    • Content that must be linked to the instruction
    • Context within which the response should be developed.
  • The teacher should spent time to explain the instruction given by the descriptive/action verb as well as how to approach and interpret the question opened with a specific action verb.
    Examples provided below:
    • Evaluate/judge/assess: Always start the answer by indicating that it is good or bad/ correct or wrong/suitable or unsuitable and then continue by giving reasons to motivate your judgement. Only one mark will be awarded for indicating whether it is good or bad/ correct or wrong/suitable or unsuitable and the remaining marks are allocated to the motivation.
      E.g. Evaluate an advertisement. It could have good qualities: good colour, big picture, great slogan but it may also have bad qualities such as spelling mistakes, no price, etc.
    • Distinguish/differentiate: refers only to differences between two or three items and is often better answered in a table format
    • Comparing: refers to differences and similarities and is also often better answered in a table format
    • Tabulate: means all information MUST be provided in a table format
    • Draw/design a menu: means the correct menu format must be used. ALL rules for writing and planning a menu should be applied, including a frame around the menu, capital letters for the start of each word and spaces between the courses as well as a date at the bottom. Also do the menu on ONE page; NOT starting at the bottom of a page and then moving on to the next page
    • Calculate: involves providing a formula and then proceeding with the calculations
    • Describing means to give a brief or detailed account in a sentence of a term/concept.
    • Explaining means to make content clear by describing it in more detail, revealing relevant facts or providing reasons.
    • Predict means to say or estimate what will happen or what the outcome or consequence will be of something.
    • Debate/argue/reason means to reason about the positives and negatives, advantages or disadvantages

5.3 Recommended resource material

  • Textbooks – The school should purchase at least one copy from both the approved textbooks on the official Department of Basic Education (DBE) list. The list of approved textbooks includes Hospitality Studies Grade 12, Focus, Maskew Miller Longman and Master Hospitality Studies Grade 12, Master Books. The teacher must use both textbooks as resource material when planning a lesson as they complement one another.
  • Resource packs available from PED Subject Advisors
  • National exemplar papers for Grades 10 to 12.
  • Relevant media such as newspapers, articles, pictures, pamphlets and magazines.
  • The school should subscribe to food magazines to stay up to date with new trends, and to find recipes for current trends.
  • Cookery books from libraries and other sources. A few good South African recipe books should be available in the classroom.
  • Internet access to sites relevant to the hospitality industry to do research for case studies, recipes, images, video clips of demonstrations etc.
  • Collect menus from fine dining restaurants. Excellent examples are available online.
  • Follow the social media reviews from:
    • Various restaurant platforms
    • Hotel websites, in terms of experience, customer service, hygiene, food trends, etc.
  • Invite guest speakers, chefs/restaurateurs to do demonstrations or speak to learners on latest trends, expectations in the industry, food and nutrition, special diets, health inspection requirements etc.
  • A visit to the Good Food and Wine Show, a local butcher or Hostex is helpful to visit to see new trends and products and to create an interest in the field.

These Examination Guidelines document is meant to assist with the articulation of the assessment principles prescribed in the NCS CAPS document for Hospitality Studies. All teaching and learning as well as assessment for learning, must align to the NCS CAPS document for Hospitality Studies. This Examination Guideline serves to strengthen assessment as prescribed Amended Section 4 of the CAPS for Hospitality Studies.
Qualitative curriculum coverage as enunciated in the CAPS cannot be over-emphasised.

Last modified on Friday, 25 June 2021 08:14