NATIONAL SENIOR CERTIFICATE
INSTRUCTIONS AND INFORMATION
SECTION A: SOURCE-BASED QUESTIONS
Answer ONE question from this section. Source material to be used to answer these questions is contained in the ADDENDUM.
QUESTION 1: HOW DID THE FORMATION OF THE UNITED DEMOCRATIC FRONT (UDF) HAVE AN IMPACT ON THE APARTHEID REGIME IN THE 1980s?
Study Sources 1A, 1B, 1C and 1D and answer the questions that follow.
1.1 Refer to Source 1A.
1.1.1 According to the source, name the THREE ‘little’ words that Dr Boesak used during his speech. (3 x 1) (3)
1.1.2 Explain what is meant by the statement, “We want all of South Africa’s people to have rights”. (1 x 2) (2)
1.1.3 What do you think that Dr Allan Boesak meant when he specifically referred to impoverished homelands and separate group areas?
(1 x 2) (2)
1.1.4 Comment on the usefulness of this source to a historian doing research about the launch of the UDF. (2 x 2) (4)
1.2 Study Source 1B.
1.2.1 Identify any THREE organisations that were affiliated to the UDF as shown in the photograph. (3 x 1) (3)
1.2.2 What messages are conveyed in the photograph? (Use the visual clues in the source.) (2 x 2) (4)
1.3 Compare Sources 1A and 1B. Explain how the information in Source 1A supports the evidence in Source 1B regarding the reasons for the launch of the UDF. (2 x 2) (4)
1.4 Consult Source 1C.
1.4.1 Define the concept apartheid in the context of South Africa’s political situation in the 1980s. (1 x 2) (2)
1.4.2 Identify TWO activities that the UDF embarked on to expose the apartheid government. (2 x 1) (2)
1.4.3 Quote evidence from the source that explains the reason for the launch of the ‘one million signatures’ campaign. (1 x 2) (2)
1.4.4 Explain what is implied by, ‘… it was decided to transform mass support into active participation’. (1 x 2) (2)
1.5 Use Source 1D.
1.5.1 Comment on why you think the apartheid regime was determined to stop the spread of popular resistance. (1 x 2) (2)
1.5.2 List TWO tactics from the source that shows how the apartheid government tried to repress the UDF. (2 x 1) (2)
1.5.3 Using the information in the source and your own knowledge, explain why these methods were referred to as ‘acts of war against
the population’. (1 x 2) (2)
1.5.4 Explain why you think that the government’s reaction to the activities of the UDF was violent. (2 x 2) (4)
1.5.5 Name any TWO UDF leaders that were detained by the apartheid government. (2 x 1) (2)
1.6 Using the information in the relevant sources and your own knowledge, write a paragraph of about EIGHT lines (about 80 words) explaining how the formation of the United Democratic Front (UDF) had an impact on the apartheid regime in the 1980s. (8)
QUESTION 2: HOW SUCCESSFUL WAS THE TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION COMMISSION (TRC) IN DEALING WITH THE DEATH OF MLUNGISI GRIFFITHS MXENGE?
Study Sources 2A, 2B, 2C and 2D and answer the questions that follow.
2.1 Read Source 2A.
2.1.1 According to the source, who was Griffiths Mxenge? (1 x 1) (1)
2.1.2 Name the THREE apartheid operatives who were charged with the murder of Griffiths Mxenge. (3 x 1) (3)
2.1.3 How, according to Nofemela, was Griffiths Mxenge murdered? (2 x 1) (2)
2.1.4 Why, according the source, did apartheid operatives steal his belongings? (1 x 2) (2)
2.1.5 Why, do you think, were the three apartheid operatives found guilty of the killing of Mxenge, but not sentenced? (2 x 2) (4)
2.2 Study Source 2B.
2.2.1 Using your own knowledge and the information in the source, explain why the three apartheid operatives were granted amnesty. (2 x 2) (4)
2.2.2 Why, do you think, this statement: ‘It will not be necessary for the trial court to proceed with the question of sentence’ was made? (1 x 2) (2)
2.2.3 In considering the Amnesty Committee’s decision on granting amnesty to the three accused, explain the reasoning for this decision. (2 x 2) (4)
2.3 Consult Source 2C.
2.3.1 What message is being portrayed in this cartoon regarding the work of the TRC? (2 x 2) (4)
2.3.2 Name the person that is leading the expedition. (1 x 2) (2)
2.3.3 Define the concept retributive justice in your own words. (1 x 2) (2)
2.3.4 Using the information in the source and your own knowledge, explain why Alex Boraine stated that ‘retributive justice’ has been ‘left out of this expedition’. (1 x 2) (2)
2.4 Compare Sources 2B and 2C. Explain how the information in Source 2B supports the evidence in Source 2C regarding the granting of amnesty to those responsible for the death of Griffith’s Mxenge. (2 x 2) (4)
2.5 Refer to Source 2D.
2.5.1 According to the source, why did Griffiths’ brother Mhleli disagree with the decision of amnesty granted to the accused? (1 x 2) (2)
2.5.2 Explain why the Mxenge family responded in this manner to the granting of amnesty to the three apartheid operatives. (2 x 2) (4)
2.6 Using the information in the relevant sources and your own knowledge, write a paragraph of about EIGHT lines (about 80 words) explaining how the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) dealt with the death of Griffiths
SECTION B: ESSAY QUESTIONS
Answer ONE question from this section.
QUESTION 3: CIVIL RESISTANCE, 1970s TO 1980s: SOUTH AFRICA ‒ THE CRISIS OF APARTHEID IN THE 1980s
‘It was the Black Consciousness Movement that filled the political vacuum and challenged the apartheid government in the 1970s’.
Critically discuss this statement. Use relevant evidence to support your line of argument. 
QUESTION 4: THE COMING OF DEMOCRACY TO SOUTH AFRICA AND COMING TO TERMS WITH THE PAST: NEGOTIATED
SETTLEMENT AND THE GNU
Discuss to what extent South Africa emerged as a democracy from the crisis of the 1990s.
Use relevant examples in your discussion. 
QUESTION 5: THE END OF THE COLD WAR AND A NEW WORLD ORDER: THE EVENTS OF 1989
‘Sweeping revolutionary changes like Gorbachev’s reforms and the downfall of communism in the Soviet Union (USSR) paved the way for negotiations between the ANC and the apartheid government after 1989.’
Do you agree with the statement? Support your line of argument with relevant historical evidence.