• It is violence arising out of unequal gender roles and power relationships.
    It is rooted in gender inequality, the abuse of power and harmful norms.
  • The overwhelming majority of victims are women, resulting from their perceived subordinate status in society.
  • In some cases, men do become victims of GBV .
  • It includes any act or threat, usually by males, that inflict physical, psychological or sexual harm.
    NOTE:Other relevant responses must be credited.


  • Psychological or emotional abuse: harassing, threatening to take children away from the victim, isolating him/her from family.
  • Verbal abuse: calling the victim by derogatory names, humiliating him/her in the presence of others.
  • Sexual abuse: forcing the victim into unwanted sexual acts.
  • Spiritual abuse: belittling the victim’s spiritual beliefs, not allowing him/her to attend the place of worship of his/her choice.
  • Cyber abuse: the victim is often shamed or blackmailed by the perpetrator.
  • Financial abuse: denying the victim access or unreasonably limiting spending of family finances.
    NOTE: In all the above examples, the perpetrator and victim are from different genders.

1.3 The following are among the major causes of GBV:

  • Religious and cultural norms:
    granting men control over female behaviour.
  • Associating with peers who condone violence.
    The perpetrator will see gender based violence as a way to resolve conflict .
  • Witnessing marital violence and being abused as a child.
    In later life, the abuser will see the violence as normal.
  • Poverty, low socio-economic status, lack of education and unemployment.
    The victim will have low self esteem, and not be in a position to exercise his/her rights.
  • Patriarchal society
    This results in male control of wealth and decision-making in the family./ Rigid gender roles with inherent male domination.
  • Substance abuse, such as drugs and alcohol.
    Levels of self control decrease, and violence increases within the family.
    NOTE: Other relevant responses must be credited.
    Mark only the first three responses.



  • Impact on women’s health: physical and psychological health problems e.g. disability, anxiety, fear, suicide.
  • Economic and social impact: rejection and social stigma, reduced ability to participate in social and economic activities.
  • The impact on the woman’s family and dependants: divorce, broken family and jeopardised family's economic and emotional development.
  • The impact on the perpetrators: facing arrest and imprisonment, increased tension in the home.
  • The impact of GBV on wider society: burden on health and judicial systems.
  • GBV can also result in mob justice, as the culprit is usually known by the victim’s family/ community.
  • While the overwhelming majority of GBV victims are women, it is acknowledged that men too can be abused by women.
    NOTE: Other relevant responses must be credited.
    Mark only the first three responses.



  • According to Islam women have the legal right to do business, and to inherit property.
  • The woman's property belongs solely to the woman. The husband cannot use it without her permission.
  • The Qur'an describes husbands and wives as 'garments' to one other: protecting, beautifying and comforting each other.
  • Islam banned the practice of families inheriting women when the husband dies.
  • According to Islam women are not supposed to be treated as having unequal status within marriage and society.
  • The Qur'an calls upon men not to threaten women with divorce.
  • Men are the maintainers/protectors of women (Qur'an 4.34).


  • The reverence for femininity exhibited in their faith reveals an inherent respect for women and thus a condemnation of GBV.
  • Hindus believe that the mother is most important and truly divine.
  • They worship God as Mother, thus each woman is considered a manifestation of the Divine Mother.
  • Women should be given protection at every stage of life.
  • Purity, self-control and devotion are values pertaining to men, as much as women.
  • In the words of Swami Vivekananda, 'It is not possible for the bird to fly on only one wing.'
  • The statement exemplifies the belief that man and woman are two wings of the same bird, and so a man is incomplete without a woman.
    NOTE: Other relevant responses must be credited. (12)





  • According to the Qur'an, Allah created the universe in six phases.
  • Allah provides the energy and everything that the universe needs for survival.
  • According to Islam, the existence of the universe is not accidental.
  • Life is not purposeless, but planned and purposeful.
  • Each variety of plant and animal species in the world has important roles in the ecosystem.
  • New forms of life are continuously being created and function according to established divine laws.
  • The universe is not eternal but has a fixed timespan.


  • Buddhists believe that the world was not created at any point in time.
  • The world has been created millions of times every second and will continue to do so by itself.
  • The world will break away by itself.
  • According to Buddhism, the world system always appears and disappears in the universe.
  • The universe, in which we live, has existed for an enormous period of time and possibly for endless time.
  • The explanation of the origin of the world is not a concern in Buddhism.
  • In the eyes of Buddha the world is nothing but Samsara – the cycle of repeated birth and death.
    NOTE: Other relevant responses must be credited.


  • Inspiration is an important normative source in many religions.
  • It forms the basis of sacred text.
  • It is the true origin of all religions.
  • It affirms the canonical teachings of religions.
  • Inspiration refers to the power or force of an extraordinary being taking over a chosen being.
  • The founding figures of many religions were inspired by a higher power or wisdom.
  • Such people felt that they received revelation from an extraordinary being.
  • In African Traditional Religion the mediums or diviners receive inspiration while they are in a trance.
  • Inspiration is a powerful motivation for the followers of a religion.
  • There are several types of inspiration, namely:
    • Divine inspiration, which is direct and immediate and inspired the founders of religions.
    • Contemporary inspiration, which is ongoing and serves to unite worshippers with their Creator.
    • Mediums and diviners in the ATR communicate with the spiritual realm through inspiration.
      NOTE: Other relevant responses must be credited. (12)


  • Grammar and historical context
    This means that the writings must be understood within the context of the time and circumstances in which the text was written.
  • Clearest meaning
    The meaning that is clearest to the reader should be considered.
  • Meaning of words
    The meaning of words often changes over time and context.
  • Plan, purpose and context
    The writing plan or structure of the whole document must be taken into account.
  • Figurative language
    Figurative language used in sacred texts must not be interpreted literally.
  • Other sacred texts
    Sacred texts may be used to interpret other sacred texts on the same topic because there is consistency among teachings of a religion and its sacred texts.
    NOTE: Credit any TWO of the above. (8)



  • The Roman Catholic Church sees itself as the original church of Christ.
  • The Holy Spirit comes from God the Father and Son.
  • They believe that faith is the key to salvation.
  • Salvation is the gift given freely through the work of Jesus Christ, who died for sinners.
  • They believe that they are the rightly guided church.
  • The Holy Spirit comes from God the Father only and not the son.
  • The Eastern Orthodox Church does not add the Son because they believe that this makes the Father and the Son superior to the Holy Spirit.

NOTE: Other relevant responses must be credited.
FOUR marks are allocated for naming TWO branches and
EIGHT marks for differences. Of these, a maximum of SIX marks may be awarded if only one branch is discussed.



  • The head of Catholicism is the Pope.
  • The centre of power is in Rome (Vatican).
  • The church is governed at parish level by priests, deaneries by deans, dioceses by bishops and arch dioceses by archbishops.
  • The churches are governed by ordained ministers and bishops or elected elders.
  • Overall rule is by a higher authority such as a synod or general assembly, chaired by the presiding bishop
  • Some Protestant churches are independent and not accountable to a higher authority than the congregation.
  • The difference between the Catholic and Orthodox Churches is that the latter do not accept the leadership of the Pope.
  • Authority within the church is in the hands of the bishops and archbishops.
  • They are governed by ordained ministers, priests, bishops and archbishops.
  • Their ordained clergy may be married: they do not have to be celibate.




  • 'Anatman' means that ego/self prevents us from becoming enlightened and reaching Nirvana.
  • Theravada Buddhism teaches that enlightenment comes through an individual effort, and not by intervention of others or by any gods.
  • The followers of Mahayana strive to become Bodhisattva, (one who is at the service of the enlightenment of others).
  • They believe in collective enlightenment.


  • Theravada Buddhism is one compact branch, with little or no deviation in different parts of the world.
  • The monastery has greater significance in Theravada Buddhism than in other branches.
  • Each group of the Mahayana Buddhism is governed by a senior monk.
  • The senior monk is assisted by council of the senior monks and sometimes senior nuns.




  • The scientific theory of creation of the universe is called the Big Bang theory.
  • What existed before the Big Bang theory is not known.
  • There was a big explosion in space and within seconds the universe had appeared and expanded to an enormous size.
  • It happened about 13.7/ 15 billion years ago.
  • Small temperature differences in the initial explosion led to varying densities throughout the universe.
  • These eventually formed into clusters of matter and energy.
  • They formed vast collections of stars that we call galaxies.
  • Some galaxies condensed into a combination of stars and planets called solar systems.
  • Our earth belongs to one of the solar systems. (12)



  • In Taoism, the world and everything in it comes into being automatically as part of the activity of the Tao.
  • It is not planned, but it is not unplanned.
  • The Tao did not intend the world to exist, nor did it not want the world to exist.
  • The world simply emerged as a tiny speck in the enormous 'bowl' of creation as the Tao continued on its path.
  • According to Taoism the world consists of processes of creation and destruction.
  • The Taoist view of the universe is based very much on their observation of the natural and human world.


  • To Hindus, the universe itself is the Creator.
  • The Creator exists in either an active or passive state.
  • The passive state is a state of rest, when nothing happens.
  • After a very long time the Creator becomes active again.
  • This is when part of the universe becomes different from other parts, and creation begins.
  • Hindus often show creation as dance.
  • The changing universe is the dancing of the .Creator. (12)




  • Buddhism does not have any account of creation.
  • Therefore, Buddhists do not mind what scientists say about how the universe and how people came into being.
  • Buddhism also believes that all life involves constant transformation and evolution.
  • They believed in evolution long before Western scientists did.
  • They believe in the continuity of all living beings.
  • This explains why Buddhism has no problem with the idea that human beings may have evolved from more primitive, primate
  • This is in line with other Eastern religions. (8)



  • Conservative Christians interpret the Bible quite literally.
  • They reject the idea that humans might have evolved from ape-like forms.
  • They believe that God created Adam and Eve as the first people on earth.
  • They further believe that man was created in God's image.
  • Darwin’s theory, then, is seen as an affront to the Biblical account of Creation.
  • Some Christians believe that the Bible should be interpreted symbolically and not literally.
  • These people believe that there is no conflict between science and religion.
  • Christianity’s response is like that of the other two Abrahamic faiths: the conservatives reject Darwin’s theory, while liberals
    merge it into a more flexible interpretation of sacred text. (10)



  • Hindus have no problem with evolution because they believe that the universe is based on evolution.
  • Hindus believe that they have a more advanced theory of evolution than the scientific theory.
  • Hinduism provides a more comprehensive view of evolution, because it is not limited to physical but includes spiritual evolution.
  • Hindus believe that you have control over both your spiritual and physical evolution.
  • According to Hinduism, if one lives a good life, one will gradually evolve through many rebirths until one is spiritually
  • Retrogression of the soul is also possible.
  • While Hinduism has no issues with Darwin’s theory, its main focus is on spiritual evolution/ retrogression. (8)
    NOTE: Other relevant responses must be credited.





  • Agnosticism comes from Greek, 'a' meaning 'without' and 'gnosis' meaning 'knowledge'.
  • This refers to uncertainty about knowledge of God.
  • The term was first used by a philosopher called TH Huxley in 1869.
  • Darwin's theory of human evolution challenged the idea of a supreme Creator, and provided an alternative world view for agnostics.
  • Agnostics believe that it is not possible to either prove or disprove the existence of God or a supernatural being.
  • Agnostics are sceptical about religious teachings.
  • They reject religious doctrine; especially religion that claims to have knowledge of the divine.



  • Atheists reject the belief that divine or supernatural powers exist.
  • There are different degrees of atheism.
  • Soft or neutral atheists do not actively reject the existence of a supernatural being.
  • Strong or positive atheists believe there is evidence to support their atheistic views.
  • In some cases soft atheists reject both theism and strong atheism.
  • This is because they feel both world views depend on proof to support their claims.
  • Atheists often turn to science to explain the nature of the universe, rather than relying on faith. (12)


  • A secular worldview leads to the separation of religion and state.
  • Development of democratic government.
  • Secular laws become the highest laws in the world.
  • Most religious people adapted to the secular view by accepting the separation of religion and the state.
  • It promotes freedom of conscience and belief.
  • It provides a framework of principles and ethical guidelines for life.
  • Society has freedom to question the authority of religious teachings.
  • Secular views led to the development of science and technology in society.
  • It promotes freedom of speech where society can debate and question some of the traditional beliefs.
  • Secular views led to the development of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
  • It prevents the domination of one religion over others.


  • It undermines the role of religion.
  • It provides an alternative set of norms and values.
  • The conflicting values create confusion in society.
  • Institutions such as marriage and family life are seen as less important, since they were traditionally based on religious teachings.
    NOTE: A maximum of TWELVE marks may be awarded if only 'advantages' or only 'disadvantages' are discussed.
    Other relevant responses must be credited.



  • Taoists have a very sophisticated idea about the nature of what we might call 'divinity'.
  • Taoism teaches that it is impossible to describe divinity completely.
  • 'Tao' means 'path'. It first meant path as in a 'path in a field'. Then it came to mean the 'path travelled by the stars', and finally, the 'path of the universe'.
  • The divine is great, and creation happens in it.
  • All things come from being, and being comes from non-being.
  • Taoism teaches that non-being is the ultimate or the starting point of everything – it is bigger, in a sense, than being.
  • The divine is huge and spacious. Creation happens in it and pours forth from it.
  • Everything consists of two forces; yin and yang.


  • Christians believe in the existence of a supreme and divine being known as God.
  • God is eternal, which means that God does not have a beginning or an end.
  • God himself was not created, as He is the source of all life.
  • God manifests Himself as three persons. This doctrine is called 'Holy Trinity'.
  • God the Father is the creator and controller of everything in the universe.
  • God the Son is the Liberator/ Saviour of all humanity.
  • God the Holy Spirit is counsellor of Christians and advocate fortheir cause.  (10)
    NOTE: Other relevant responses must be credited.



  • The Taoist point of view on death is that we should appreciate life in order to accept death.
  • When one realises that what makes life wonderful is its cyclical processes, it becomes easier to accept that life.
  • In this religion, death is simply a process of transformation in which one goes from one form to another.
  • It means that one has been part of the universe from the start and will continue to be a joy and sadness.
  • In the Taoist view, one should not be afraid of death, one should make fun of it.
  • In this religion, one does not need life after death in some kind of heaven or the kind of life after death that is found in Hinduism.
  • One only gets transformed and ends up elsewhere.


  • According to Christianity, life does not cease with death, but continues beyond the grave.
  • Those who die enter a new phase called paradise.
  • Sinners go to hell where they are punished.
  • On the Last Day, the ordinary world will no longer exist. The rule of God will prevail.
  • Only those who will have lived according to the will of God will live eternal life.
  • Death is not the end of life but a phase in the journey of human kind.
  • Resurrection gives meaning to life. There is a Day of Resurrection during which the good and the evil will be dealt
    with according to their actions in this world.  (12)
    NOTE: Other relevant responses must be credited.



  • South Africa adopted a new constitution, which contains the Bill of Rights.
  • The Bill of Rights states that everyone has the right to freedom of religion, belief and opinion.
  • Everyone is protected by the Constitution to practise his/her beliefs.
  • Section 9, the equality clause, prohibits unfair discrimination on various grounds including religion.
  • The Human Rights Commission investigates cases of unfair discrimination, including religious discrimination.
  • The school curriculum teaches understanding and tolerance of all religions.
  • This is done through subjects such as Life Orientation and Religion Studies.
  • The national broadcaster, the SABC, provides religious coverage for all religions.
  • In the opening of Parliament various political and religious leaders commit themselves to the Greater Deity.
  • Public holiday celebrations are addressed by religious leaders of different faiths. (10)


  • The Programme for Christian-Muslim Relations in Africa focuses on Christian-Muslim relations.
  • The African Council of Religious Leaders focuses on bringing together all religious leaders and their communities, in a common commitment tom peace. (4)


  • Bringing together religious communities, civil society, private sector and government.
  • Commissioning meeting of religious leaders who take the IFAPA decisions.
  • Organising subregional summits.
  • Establishing and registering national chapters.
  • Sending interfaith delegations to conflict risk areas.
  • Participating in the legislative election in Togo.
  • Organising exchange visits between landmine victims and survivors from Ethiopia, South Sudan and Uganda.
  • Participating in the World Social Forum held in Kenya (2007).
  • Sending a women's delegation to Nordic countries.
  • Forming IFAPA Women Network.
  • Organising the Nakanyoni Youth Peace Camp.
  • Holding the first continental interfaith youth consultation.
  • Establishing regional Youth Network. (14)


  • The first Parliament of the World's Religions was held in 1893 in Chicago in the United State of America.
  • The main aim was to create a global dialogue of faiths.
  • In 1993, the Parliament was again held in Chicago.
  • The aim was to further bring religions together.
  • In the meeting the declaration was created titled: 'Towards a Global ethic'.
  • The 1999 Parliament was held in Cape Town.
  • The aim was to focus on how to deal with HIV/Aids.
  • In 2004, the Parliament was in Barcelona, Spain.
  • The main focal points were how to address issues like violence, safe water and refugees.
  • The 2007 Parliament discussed how poverty could be eradicated.
  • In 2009, the Parliament met in Melbourne, Australia.
  • The Parliament dealt with Aboriginal reconciliation, sustainability and global climate change as understood by indigenous religions. (10)


  • The Parliament of World Religions is effective because leaders of different religions are now able to speak in one voice against religious violence in the world.
  • In 1999 they were able to organise an interfaith coalition to address the illegal gun trade in the slums of Brazil, which resulted in a strong law, halting illegal gun sales.
  • In Barcelona, the Parliament of World Religions was attended by 8 000 people from many different religious and spiritual traditions.
  • This diversity and inclusivity demonstrates the harmonious relationship between religions.
  • It has branches all over the world which are actively involved in solving religious and civil wars in those countries.
  • The council for the Parliament of the World Religions has established a network of interreligious movements in partner cities around the world.
  • They have a partnership with other sectors of society such as UNESCO in the United Nations.
  • However, the parliament lacks statutory power. (It cannot promulgate or enforce legislation.)
  • It therefore relies on cooperation with the state, in order to be effective.
  • The effectiveness of the parliament is proportionate to religiosity (interest in religion).
  • As religiosity declines across the world, so too does the effectiveness of the parliament. (12)
    TOTAL: 150
Last modified on Thursday, 01 December 2022 11:11