1.1.1 B – Mitzvot / D – Halakah. (1)
1.1.2 A – path of the universe. (1)
1.1.3 D – Brahamas or spiritual teachers. (1)
1.1.4 A – Siddharta Gautama. (1)
1.1.5 B – Iran. (1)
1.1.6 B – Abu Bakr / D – Ali. (1)
1.1.7 B – the Divine Life Society (1)
1.1.8 A – A collection of teachings of the Prophet Muhammad (1)
1.1.9 D – Therevada Buddhism. (1)
1.1.10 B – teachings with absolute authority. (1)
1.2.1 E – Christianity (1)
1.2.2 D – Kitáb-i-Aqdas (1)
1.2.3 A – Traditional Hinduism (1)
1.2.4 F – Myth (1)
1.2.5 C – Islam (1)
1.2.6 H – Ritual (1)
1.3.1 Shoghi Effendi – Others are scientists. Shoghi Effendi is the person that succeeded Abdu’l-Baha.(2)
1.3.2 Sanskrit – An ancient language of the Far East. The others belong to Buddhism.(2)
1.3.3 Tripitaka – The sacred canon of Theravada Buddhism. The others are concepts in Buddhism.(2)
1.3.4 African Traditional Religion – Does not have a sacred text. The rest have sacred texts and a founder.(2)
1.3.5 Ecumenism – Is a concept that means unity in churches. The rest are concepts in Hinduism.(2)
- The spiritual goal of humans is to free the soul.
- The spiritual goal of humans towards rebirth from the body so that its oneness with Brahmin can be realised. (2)
1.4.2 Nation state
- An independent group of cities and villages united by culture, religion and government.(2)
- An approach that does not reject God’s existence.
- Non-theists simply ignore the concept of God.(2)
- Refers to the breath (power/knowledge) of an extraordinary being or power.
- For example, a deity taking over a person and inspiring him or her with divine knowledge.
- An inspired person can also feel that they are possessed by a certain power.
- Most religions have founding figures who were inspired by a higher power or wisdom.(2)
- Rejects the existence of a Supreme Being.(2)
1.5.1 FALSE – Syncretism is a blending of different religions / Hermeneutics is the science of interpreting religious texts.(2)
1.5.2 FALSE – A shaman is someone who acts as a medium between the visible and the spiritual world.(2)
1.5.3 FALSE – Bukhari is a Hadith collection of Imam Bukhari (2)
1.5.4 FALSE – The New Testament is part of the Christian Bible. (2)
1.6.1 Normative source
- The word refers to creating standards; tending to create or lay down standards.
- It also affirms how things should be.(2)
- Secularism seeks to interpret life on principles taken solely from the material world, without recourse to religion.
- Secularism shifts the focus from religion to other ‘temporal’ and ‘this-worldly’ things, with emphasis on nature, reason, science, and development.(4)
TOTAL SECTION A: 50
- Uniqueness is the quality of being unique or unusual.
- It is those features that make a religion different from other religions.
- It is those features that make it identifiable as a different religion.
- There is uniqueness in beliefs, practices and normative texts.
- In Religion Studies it means that each religion is unique or remarkable.(4)
2.2 ONE factor that forms religious identity
2.3 FUNCTIONS OF UNIQUENESS
- It strengthens the believer’s faith.
- It identifies the religion from among other religions.
- It guides the believer’s way of life.
- It helps the believer unite in the spiritual life as a communion with other believers.
- It assists the believers to explain why they choose a particular religion.
- It helps members to identify who belongs to the faith and who does not.(6)
2.4.1 EASTERN RELIGIONS BUDDHISM
- Impermanence lies at the very heart of all Buddhist philosophy.
- It implies that even the gods / enlightened beings in Buddhism are not immortal.
- The Eightfold Path is prescribed as a way of ending suffering.
- Human suffering is caused by unfulfilled human desire.
- It is not a missionary religion.
- Hinduism believes in many gods / It is a polytheistic religion.
- Hinduism does not have a founder.
- The Hindus believe in reincarnation.
- Their primary source is the Vedas.
- Ramayana and Mahabharata are encyclopaedic sources.
- They believe in the Law of Karma.(6)
2.4.2 MIDDLE EASTERN RELIGIONS JUDAISM
- Jews believe that they have a covenant with God.
- God is perceived as a father-like figure who is both their Creator and Protector.
- God is so holy that it is forbidden to even speak His name.
- They believe that God revealed Himself through His Law.
- They lay more emphasis on the correct way of life, rather than faith or belief.
- The Muslims believe that there is one God, called Allah.
- They believe that Allah sent various prophets, but the final messenger is Prophet Mohammad.
- Their primary sources are the Qur’an and the Hadith.
- They believe in the final judgement when all mankind will be judged.
- They believe the Qur’an was revealed in the Arabic language and it must be read in Arabic.
- Christians believe in the Lord Jesus Christ as the Son of the living God.
- They believe that God sent His son to die for their sins.
- They believe that God took the human form of Jesus Christ.
- They believe that Jesus was crucified and resurrection from the dead.
- They believe in the Trinity – the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit.
- They believe that forgiveness is in the name of Jesus.
- They believe that Jesus Christ is the only way to God.
- They celebrate the Holy Communion (Eucharist) as remembrance of the death of Jesus Christ.(6)
NOTE: Any relevant answer must be credited.
2.5 FOUR SIMILIARITIES THAT EXIST WITHIN ABRAHAMIC RELIGIONS
- Belief in one God.
- Belief in prophets.
- Belief in angels.
- Belief in the Day of Judgement.
- They have sacred books.
- They have special places of worship.
- They have religious holidays.
- They belief in God as Creator.
- The have special dress code.(8)
2.6.1 HINDUISM’S VIEW ON KARMA
- The Law of Karma refers to the belief that every action has a consequence that may show up in a later reincarnation.
- It also implies the results of actions.
- According to the scripture called the Upanishads, the law of Karma is clearly formulated.
- It teaches that a person’s actions from the past are responsible for his or her present state.(4)
2.6.2 FACTS ABOUT INYANGA
- The inyanga is a primary healer.
- A person who helps people who are sick or ill with herbs and natural medicines.
- He/she provides the services of medicinal healing in a given community.
- The medicine is called ‘muti’.(4)
- Canon refers to books recognised as authoritative, like the books of the Christian Bible.
- These books are believed to be divinely revealed.
- They are also believed to be divinely inspired.
- It was declared as such.(4)
2.7 2.7.1 SIMILARITIES
- It refers to ‘being alike’.
- It is important to specify similarities, e.g. the similarities between two religions, e.g. the Buddhist and Hindu religions (believes in reincarnation).(2)
- Identity means individuality.
- It means the religion has a certain individuality or a certain personality that distinguishes it from other religions.
- It means the affirmation of the dignity and value of a religion.
- It means an exclusive religious identity in which one identifies strongly with the beliefs and doctrines of the religion and sees these as defining one’s life.(2)
- It is the opposite of similarities.
- It refers to a point at which things are not the same.(2)
3.1.1 DEFINE INTERRELIGIOUS DIALOGUE
- It is a challenging process by which adherents of differing religious traditions engage with each other.
- This is done to break down the walls of division that stand at the centre of most wars.
- The objective of interreligious dialogue is peace.(2)
3.1.2 SYNONYM FOR INSTRUMENTAL
- Helpful (2)
3.1.3 THE IMPACT RELIGION HAD ON MR MANDELA
- They played a major role in bringing about the end of apartheid in South Africa.
- These religious groups provided him and other young blacks with an education.
- They also gave comfort to political prisoners and their families.(6)
3.1.4 ORGANISATION THAT CAME INTO BEING
- The Cape Town Interfaith Initiative
- The CTII works for a unified interreligious and spiritual understanding and respect in South Africa.
- The mission of the CTII is to celebrate and share the richness of the religious and spiritual diversity in the Western Cape.
- It seeks to promote community interfaith understanding, harmony and cooperation, through both an awareness of universal spirituality and an honouring of the dignity of difference.
- The CTII arranges events where people from different faith can dialogue, attend rituals, and celebrate moments in the political and social life of South Africa together.(8)
3.1.5 INTERRELIGIOUS DIALOGUE PRIOR TO 1996
- Christianity was the state religion.
- Other religions were given little or no recognition.
- Religious freedom and equality were not in the statute books.
- There was separate observation of religious observances.
- This was in line with the apartheid government’s goal of separate development.
- People were not educated about other religions.
- However, apartheid served to unite religions.
- The South African Council of Churches (SACC) was formed in 1968. The SACC united Christians of various denominations.
- The Call of Islam was formed in 1984.
- Jews for Justice was formed in 1985.
- The inter-faith struggle against apartheid resulted in the formation of the South African branch of the World Conference of Religions for Peace (WCRP) in 1984. (10)
3.1.6 WOMEN’S ROLE IN INTERRELIGIOUS DIALOGUE
- They have women’s unions, where they pray together for all challenges facing women.
- When a family loses a family member, women of that particular area unite in assisting the grieving family.
- South African women of different faiths unite to fight against rape, as well as the abuse of women and children.
- They have their motto, ‘wathinta abafiza wathinta imbokodo’, meaning, ‘if you touch the women, you strike the rock’.
- They always overcome their religious differences when they are fighting against social ills.
- Women are seldom in leadership positions in religious organisations therefore, therefore do not play a role.
- Women are marginalised by the misinterpretation of religious teaching.
- In certain communities, cultural practices discriminate against women.
- They therefore confine their work to their own religious groups.(8)
NOTE: Other relevant answers must be credited.
3.2.1 REASONS FOR REMOVING CHRISTMAS AND GOOD FRIDAY
- The SALRC believe that Christianity are receiving prejudicial treatment through the fact that the two main Christian holidays are declared as paid public holidays.
- Adherents of other faiths are disadvantaged as they do not have the benefit of a paid public holiday during their religious celebrations.(4)
3.2.2 REASONABLE ARGUMENTS BY CHRISTIANS
- Easter and Christmas are two of the most holy days for Christians.
- Christians are, by far, the biggest religious grouping in our country.
- Christianity makes up 79,8% of South Africa’s population.
- Only two of the twelve public holidays are Christians holidays, the rest are all secular public holidays.
- In 1994, Ascension Day was completely removed from the national calendar and Easter Monday was changed to Family Day.
- It would appear as if Christianity is systematically being removed from our society.
- The weeks leading up to these two periods (Christmas and Easter) are two of the most economic active weeks in our country.
- No other religion even come close to the buying power that Christians display during these times. Removing Christmas and Good Friday might appear to bring equality to the situation, but it might also give our already struggling economy a knock it might struggle to recover from.
- Being the largest religious grouping in South Africa, Christians can bring significant financial pressure to influence this decision.
- The fact that no other religion can compare in terms of numbers, it would not be equality to give all religions the same status.
- Then there is the question of discrimination among the secular public holidays on the current calendar.
- We celebrate Women’s Day as a public holiday, but not Men’s Day.
- We also have a Workers’ Day on our calendar, while employers are discriminated against.(4)
3.2.3 ALTERNATIVES ACCORDING TO THE PUBLIC HOLIDAYS ACT
- According to the Public Holidays Act, a person adhering to another religion can exchange the existing Good Friday and Christmas holidays, for an occasion of their choice.
- Employers must be flexible to allow employees who are adherents of other religions to celebrate the religious holiday of their choice.
- If Muslims want to take paid leave on Ramadan and Hindus take their day off on Diwali, they can do the necessary arrangements with their employers.(4)
3.2.4 WHAT DOES THE QUOTATION MEAN?
- The writer does not believe that the presence of these public holidays on the South African calendar, strengthens religious separation.
- The term divides denote a certain level of conflict between religions over these public holidays.
- There has never been any conflict in South Africa pertaining to these holidays.(2)
4.1 4.1.1 EXPLAIN THE CONCEPT PARABLE
- A parable provides a deeper meaning than the obvious surface one.
- It is a kind of a story that demonstrates a moral point.
- Parables are commonly used in religion, e.g. Christianity.
- These stories are designed to teach spiritual truths.(4)
4.1.2 OPINION ON WHAT THE LESSON IS
- Allah is referred to as the light of the heavens and the earth.
- Allah is likened unto a lamp that shines although fire never lit it.
- Allah is thus self-sustaining.
- Allah’s essence is likened unto olive oil that has no origin.
- Allah is the guiding light to those who desire to be led by him. (4)
4.1.3 ELEMENTS IN THE PARABLE
4.1.4 A PARABLE:
A Christian parable: The Prodigal Son
- The prodigal son is a well-known Christian parable about a son who left his home and family to lead a wild and wicked life.
- He eventually returns home, sick and penniless.
- He is joyously welcomed by his father.
- The point of the parable is that God rejoices in the return of a sinner, like a father over a lost son.
A Hindu parable: The blind men and the elephant
- In the parable, each of six men touch parts of an elephant.
- The individual characteristics of the same elephant are based only on what each blind man was able to perceive.
- This parable is about a range of truths and mistakes.
- It is also about the need for communication.
- The need for respect for different perspectives are also a strong theme.
An African parable
- A young man was sent by his parents.
- He was reminded to always give help where he could and to be humble.
- He was also reminded to never disgrace his clan.
- They will be with him in spirit.
- On the way he met an old woman sitting with tattered clothes.
- She asked him for something to eat and he refused.
- She asked to clean her eyes.
- Again he refused to help her.
- Suddenly there was thick mist and he could not see and return home.
- At home he saw the old woman who had eaten and now clean.
- She told the story and left.
- His parents were very disappointed.
- They reminded him that they said to him that he would not journey alone; any individual is monitored by God and by the ancestors. (8)
4.2 4.2.1 CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE
Doctrine of the Trinity
- This doctrine teaches the unity of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit.
- The Trinity is regarded as one Godhead.
- The doctrine states that God is the triune God, existing as three persons, but is one being. (4)
4.2.2 HINDU DOCTRINE Doctrine of reincarnation
- The doctrine of reincarnation is the philosophical concept that the non-physical essence (soul) of a living being can start a new life after a biological death.
- This new life is in a different form or body after the person dies.
- The future form is dependent on the persons’ previous actions and behaviour. (4)
4.3 ROMAN CATHOLIC DOGMA
- A well-known doctrine of the Catholic Church is that of the Immaculate Conception.
- They refer to it as the Perpetual Virginity of the Mother Mary, the Mother of God.
- Roman Catholicism holds as true that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was a virgin when she fell pregnant with Jesus.
- This was adopted as dogma only in the nineteenth century. (6)
- A belief is what adherents of a religion hold to be true.
- Faith describes the acceptance of a statement or teaching, this is regarded as the truth by the attachment to the beliefs / beliefs.
- They are uniting elements of a religion.
- They are closely connected to religious rituals.
- EXAMPLE: In Christianity, the Eucharist commemorates the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.(8)
- An ideology refers to the prevailing worldview that gives meaning to a person’s existence.
- An ideology is the broadest category used to describe the beliefs of an individual.
- Ideologies are always contested.
- EXAMPLE: Religious ideologies include world religions, such as Buddhism and African Traditional Religion.
- Secular ideologies include communism and materialism.(8)
5.1.1 RIGHTS VIOLATED BY GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE
- The rights to living in a safe environment.
- The right to life.(4)
5.1.2 PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
- Human rights are a very important part of the South African constitution.
- It is contained in the Bill of Rights.
- The Human Rights Commission serve as the watchdog to protect people’s rights.
- The punishment for people who undermine others’ human rights are part of the constitution of South Africa.(4)
5.1.3 WILL STEPS PROPOSED BY PRESIDENT STEM THE TIDE OF GBV? GIVE REASONS FOR YOUR ANSWER.
- The proposed measures are harsh enough for men to realise they might never be freed again if they commit GBV.
- The extra money made available will go a long way to speed up the process of bringing perpetrators before the courts.
- The possibility of new laws being written might deter men from future gender-based violence.
- Politicians in South Africa have shown themselves to be talkers, so the possibility that these promises will be kept is small to none.
- With maladministration and fraud rife in the government, it is possible that the money might never be used for its intended purpose.
- The president did not say to what lengths they might change laws.
- In a country where it seems the human rights of criminals are more important than those of women, what might our government suggest in order to stop GBV?(6)
5.1.4 CAMPAIGNS BY RELIGIOUS ORGANISATIONS
- Do seminars and workshops for men and boys to teach them how to treat women.
- Invite celebrities and well-known people to speak at these seminars to the men and boys.
- Invite women who have been victims of gender-based violence (GBV) to speak to the men and boys in their congregations and religious groups.
- Religious organisations can also arrange protest marches to show their solidarity with the victims of gender-based violence.
- Religious organisations need to have their voices heard when women suffer abuse and not help the perpetrators hide their sins.
- Organisations can come together and hold public prayer meetings.(6)
5.1.5 WHAT CAN THE GOVERNMENT DO?
- Pass stricter laws that will make it more difficult for men to get away with abuse.
- Harsher sentences can be given to perpetrators of GBV.
- Bail should be denied to every person who is accused of GBV.
- No parole should be given to perpetrators of GBV who are serving their sentences.
- The government must consider bringing back the death penalty as a deterrent against gender-based violence.(6)
5.1.6 INHUMANE MANNER OF TREATING WOMEN
- ‘… their bodies are disposed of in the bush …’
- ‘… or in shallow graves …
- ‘… or burnt beyond recognition.’(4)
5.1.7 INSTANCES OF FEMICIDE
- The rape and murder of the UCT student, Uyinene Mrwetana.
- Oscar Pistorius and the murder of Reeva Steenkamp.
- The murder of a sixteen-year-old girl in Mpumelelo Village in Stormsriver.
- The murder of Gomolemo Legae (18) in Ramosadi Village outside Mahikeng.
- Leighandre “Baby Lee” Jegels who was murder by her police officer boyfriend.
- Jade Panayiotou whose husband had her killed.
- Incidents in your immediate area can also be mentioned.(4)
NOTE: any relevant answer must be credited.
5.2.1 SYNONYM FOR ACTIVISM
- Championing (2)
5.2.2 AIMS OF 16 DAYS OF ACTIVISM
- The campaign seeks to raise awareness of the negative impact that violence has on women and children.
- To rid society of this abuse permanently.(4)
5.2.3 ONE WORD
5.2.4 POSSIBLE CAUSES
- The low status of women in the home and society.
- The abuse of power and positions of authority by men to control women and children.
- The rampant abuse of alcohol and drugs.
- Pornography is also a cause as men often want to enact with their wives, other family members or people what they see on these websites.
- The lack of the necessary social skills to deal with a break-up, on the part of men, has been noted as a cause for some of the violence visited on women.(4)
NOTE: any relevant answer must be credited.
5.2.5 CAN DESIRED AIMS BE REACHED IN 16 DAYS?
- 16 days are too short a period to make a difference.
- Gender-based violence happens throughout the year.
- Focus should be on GBV every day.
- This time has been set apart by the government, so it will be enough
- This campaign receives much coverage on TV, radio and the internet.
- Perpetrators are also punished with harsher sentences during this time.
- I believe men are more careful during this campaign. (4)
TOTAL SECTION B: 100
GRAND TOTAL: 150