ENGLISH HOME LANGUAGE
PAST PAPERS AND MEMOS NOVEMBER 2018
INSTRUCTIONS AND INFORMATION
- This question paper consists of THREE sections:
SECTION A: Comprehension (30)
SECTION B: Summary (10)
SECTION C: Language structures and conventions (30)
- Read ALL the instructions carefully.
- Answer ALL the questions.
- Start EACH section on a NEW page.
- Rule off after each section.
- Number the answers correctly according to the numbering system used in this question paper.
- Leave a line after each answer.
- Pay special attention to spelling and sentence construction.
- Suggested time allocation:
SECTION A: 50 minutes
SECTION B: 30 minutes
SECTION C: 40 minutes
- Write neatly and legibly.
SECTION A: COMPREHENSION
QUESTION 1: READING FOR MEANING AND UNDERSTANDING
Read TEXTS A and B below and answer the questions set.
MATERIALISM: A SYSTEM THAT EATS US FROM THE INSIDE OUT
- That they are crass, brash and trashy goes without saying. But there is something in the pictures posted on Rich Kids of Instagram that inspires more than the usual revulsion towards crude displays of opulence1. There is a shadow in these photos – photos of a young man wearing all four of his Rolex watches; a youth posing in front of his helicopter; endless pictures of cars, 5 yachts, shoes, mansions, swimming pools and spoilt teenagers throwing gangster poses in private jets – of something worse: something that, after you have seen a few dozen, becomes disorienting, even distressing.
- The pictures are, of course, intended to incite envy. They reek instead of 10 desperation. The young men and women seem lost in their designer clothes, dwarfed and dehumanised by their possessions, as if ownership has gone into reverse. A girl's head barely emerges from the haul of Chanel, Dior and Hermes shopping bags she has piled on her vast bed. It's captioned 'shoppy shoppy' and '#goldrush', but a photograph whose purpose is to illustrate 15 plenty seems instead to depict a void. She's alone with her bags and her image in the mirror, in a scene that seems saturated with despair.
- There has long been a correlation observed between materialism, a lack of empathy and engagement with others, and unhappiness. A series of studies published in the journal Motivation and Emotion in July showed that as people 20 become more materialistic, their wellbeing (good relationships, autonomy, sense of purpose and the rest) diminishes. As they become less materialistic, it rises.
- In one study, the researchers tested a group of 18-year-olds, then re-tested them 12 years later. They were asked to rank the importance of 25 different goals – jobs, money and status on one side, and self-acceptance, fellow-feeling and belonging on the other. They were then given a standard diagnostic test to identify mental health problems. At the ages of both 18 and 30, materialistic people were more susceptible to disorders. But if in that period they became less materialistic, they became happier.
- In another study, psychologists followed Icelanders weathering their country's 30 economic collapse. Some people became more focused on materialism, in the hope of regaining lost ground. Others responded by becoming less interested in money and turning their attention to family and community life. The first group reported lower levels of wellbeing; the second group higher levels. 35
- Another paper found that people in a controlled experiment who were repeatedly exposed to images of luxury goods, to messages that cast them as consumers rather than citizens and to words associated with materialism (such as 'buy', 'status' and 'expensive'), experienced immediate but temporary increases in material aspirations, anxiety and depression. They also became 40 more competitive and more selfish, had a reduced sense of social responsibility and were less inclined to join in social activities. The researchers point out that, as we are repeatedly bombarded with such images through advertisements, and constantly described by the media as consumers, these temporary effects could be triggered more or less 45 continuously.
- A third paper, published (paradoxically) in the Journal of Consumer Research, studied 2 500 people for six years. It found a two-way relationship between materialism and loneliness: materialism fosters social isolation; isolation fosters materialism. People who are cut off from others attach themselves to 50 possessions. This attachment in turn crowds out social relationships.
- The two varieties of materialism that have this effect – using possessions as a yardstick of success and seeking happiness through acquisition – are the varieties that seem to be on display on Rich Kids of Instagram. It was only 55 after reading this paper that I understood why those photos distressed me: they look like a kind of social self-mutilation. Materialism forces us to compare our possessions to those of others. There is no end to it! If you have four Rolexes while another has five, you are a Rolex short of contentment. The material pursuit of self-esteem reduces your self-esteem. It may also 60 leave a trail of unpayable debts, mental illness and smashed relationships. Materialism smashes the happiness and peace of mind of those who succumb to it.
- The poor can be as susceptible to materialism as the rich. It is a general social affliction, visited upon us by government policy, corporate strategy, the collapse of communities and civic life, and our acquiescence2 in a system that 65 is eating us from the inside out.
- This is the dreadful mistake we are making: allowing ourselves to believe that having more money and more stuff enhances our wellbeing, a belief possessed not only by those poor deluded people in the pictures, but by almost every member of almost every government. Worldly ambition, material 70 aspiration, perpetual growth: these are a formula for mass unhappiness.
[Adapted from www.monbiot.com]
- 1opulence – wealth/abundance
- 2acquiescence – agreement/consent
QUESTIONS: TEXT A
1.1 Account for the writer's feelings in paragraph 1. (2)
1.2 Explain what the writer means by, 'The young men and women seem lost in their designer clothes, dwarfed and dehumanised by their possessions, as if ownership has gone into reverse' (lines 10–12). (2)
1.3 Discuss the point the writer is making in lines 14–15: 'a photograph whose purpose is to illustrate plenty seems instead to depict a void.' (2)
1.4 Refer to paragraphs 3, 4 and 5. Explain the writer's purpose in referring to various research findings. (2)
1.5 Why, in your view, does the writer distinguish between 'consumers' and 'citizens' (line 38)? (3)
1.6 Discuss the paradox in paragraph 7. (3)
1.7 Refer to paragraph 8.
Critically comment on TWO elements of style used by the writer in this paragraph. (3)
1.8 Is paragraph 10 a suitable conclusion to the article as a whole? Justify your response. (3)
QUESTIONS: TEXT B
1.9 Explain how the thought bubbles of the two characters convey their attitudes toward the film. (3)
1.10 Critically discuss the cartoonist's message in TEXT B. (3)
QUESTION: TEXTS A AND B
1.11 To what extent does TEXT B support the title and paragraph 1 of TEXT A? Motivate your response. (4)
TOTAL SECTION A: 30
SECTION B: SUMMARY
QUESTION 2: SUMMARISING IN YOUR OWN WORDS
TEXT C provides insight into why young people are interested in comics and superheroes. Summarise in your own words the impact superheroes have on the youth.
- Your summary should include SEVEN points and NOT exceed 90 words.
- You must write a fluent paragraph.
- You are NOT required to include a title for the summary.
- Indicate your word count at the end of your summary.
SUPERHEROES – MORE THAN COMIC CARICATURES
Who is your favourite superhero? The interest in superheroes is increasing … but what makes superheroes so popular with children and adults alike? Do superheroes make appropriate role models? Importantly, the relationship between superheroes and societal factors is a direct one, with a strong impact on individuals.
When we read comics featuring superheroes, particularly as children, we develop our emotions, reading ability and morals. Just as we idolise celebrities, we idolise superheroes. These comics likely influence our behaviour, leadership ability and attitudes. It is not unusual to see a child wearing a Batman or Superman cape, battling imaginary supervillains and saving the world, one tree-house at a time. Pretend play based on the concept of superheroes helps children learn language and allows the expression of emotions, both negative and positive.
Children can use superheroes and supervillains to form various perspectives on a situation and test the consequences of actions. Superhero comics provide the exaggerated opportunity to play out moralistic and ethical dilemmas for both children and adults. In fact, superheroes likely feed straight into boys' tendency to control or 'master' the world.
It is quite common for superheroes to be presented with the option of whether to fight or not to fight – to use their moral compass, so to speak, before making big decisions. Importantly, children are given the opportunity to observe how their favourite role model problem-solves through ethically sticky situations.
Past research indicates that adolescence is the stage in which social comparisons are most common. Teenagers use villains as avoidance role models, while imitating superheroes who display pro-social behaviour, leadership and a variety of positive attitudes. Leadership is transactional – that is, 'leaders do something for the group and the group in return does something for the leaders', a dynamic best shown between superheroes and the cities they protect.
Superhero stories also address the superhero's unwillingness to be a bystander. Human social behaviour is learned from appropriate models – it could be argued that learning to help others occurs through the models of superheroes. We feed off their images, integrating their characteristics into our personalities, ethics and morals.
[Adapted from Art & Popular Culture, Issue 1, 3 August 2015]
TOTAL SECTION B: 10
SECTION C: LANGUAGE STRUCTURES AND CONVENTIONS
QUESTION 3: ANALYSING ADVERTISING
Study the advertisement (TEXT D) below and answer the questions set.
[Adapted from http://www.bandt.com.au]
The text in small font reads as follows:
What sort of world will this little girl grow up in? Many experts agree that it will be a considerably more energy-hungry one. There are already seven billion people on our planet. And the forecast is that there will be around two billion more people by 2050. So if we're going to keep the lights on for her, we will need to look at every possible energy source. At Shell we're exploring a broad mix of energies. We're making our fuels and lubricants more advanced and more efficient than before. With our partner in Brazil, we're also producing ethanol, a biofuel made from renewable sugar cane. And we're delivering natural gas to more than 40 countries around the world. When used to generate electricity, natural gas emits around half the CO2 of coal. Let's broaden the world's energy mix. www.shell.com/letsgo
QUESTIONS: TEXT D
3.1 What is the implication of the headline, 'Let's keep the lights on when she's your age'? (2)
3.2 Comment on the repetition of the plural personal pronouns ('our', 'we're', 'we') as an advertising technique. (2)
The text in small font reads as follows:
QUESTION: TEXT E
3.3 Comment on the appropriateness of the image in the context of the advertisement as a whole. (3)
QUESTION: TEXT D AND TEXT E
3.4 In your opinion, which advertisement would have a greater impact on the reader? Justify your choice by making reference to both advertisements. (3) 
QUESTION 4: UNDERSTANDING OTHER ASPECTS OF THE MEDIA
Study TEXT F below and answer the questions set.
TEXT F: CARTOON
QUESTIONS: TEXT F
4.1 Account for the lack of speech bubbles in FRAME 2. (2)
4.2 Compare the boy's verbal responses to his sister in FRAME 4 and FRAME 7. (2)
4.3 Refer to FRAMES 7, 8 and 9. Discuss TWO techniques that the cartoonist uses to depict the attitude of the girl. (3)
4.4 In respect of the sequence of events, the cartoonist has placed FRAME 1 first, instead of last.
Critically comment on the effectiveness of this placement in the context of the cartoon as a whole. (3) 
QUESTION 5: USING LANGUAGE CORRECTLY
Read TEXT G, which contains some deliberate errors, and answer the questions set. TEXT G
V FOR VICTIM
- Everyone's a victim of something these days – it's time we toughened up. I knew little about Terry Waite before I interviewed him. But after doing my research, I was blown away. He was taken hostage for almost five years. He spent most of it in isolation, chained, with no stimulation – not even natural light. 5
- He was freed in 1991. He laughed as he was freed without shoes, so he had to ask his rescuers to find some size 14s. Waite's attitude during his captivity, and since, is: 'No regrets, no self-pity, no sentimentality.' Now we live in a different era, one that seems to celebrate victimhood, in which people have been encouraged by society to cling to every perceived injustice, keen to 10 claim that they are oppressed. Sometimes it feels like a race to the bottom, in which oversensitivity and intolerance causes people to celebrate adversity.
- No wonder victim status is coveted by so many, when it infers benefits. The pity game has become profitable: some people land book deals out of it. Being a sufferer attracts sympathy and immunity – you can never be wrong. 15
- Playing the victim minimises real harm. Crying wolf leaves people indifferently apathetic to serious victims.
[Adapted from FAIRLADY, June 2016]
QUESTIONS: TEXT G
5.1 Which punctuation mark could be used to replace the dash (line 1), without changing the meaning of the sentence? (1)
5.2 '…I was blown away' (line 3). Write formal English for the above clause. (1)
5.3 'He was taken hostage for almost five years. He spent most of it in isolation, chained, with no stimulation – not even natural light (lines 3–5).' Rewrite the above sentences as a complex sentence. (1)
5.4 'He laughed as he was freed without shoes' (line 6). Explain the ambiguity in the above. (2)
5.5 'No regrets, no self-pity, no sentimentality' (line 8). Rewrite the above in reported speech. Begin your answer with: Waite said … (1)
5.6 The word 'victimhood' (line 9) is an example of a/an …
- abstract noun.
- gerund. (1)
5.7 'Sometimes it feels like a race to the bottom, in which oversensitivity and intolerance causes people to celebrate adversity' (lines 11–12). Correct the concord error in the above sentence. (1)
5.8 'No wonder victim status is coveted by so many, when it infers benefits' (line 13). A word has been used incorrectly in the above sentence. Replace it with the correct word. (1)
5.9 Remove the tautology in the final sentence of the extract. (1) 
TOTAL SECTION C: 30
GRAND TOTAL: 70