Wednesday, 15 September 2021 07:04


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  • Adhere strictly to these marking guidelines when marking. 
  • The standardisation process during marking guidelines discussions ensures that  the marking guidelines covers most possible responses candidates could provide. 
  • Every marker must then apply this consistently. The marking guidelines may not be  altered in any way.
  • In some qualitative questions, exercise your professional and informed judgement.
  • This question paper must be marked by experienced dance teachers/advisors/ officials as it requires specialist knowledge.
  • In some questions, candidates have a choice. If candidates have answered both  questions, mark only the answers to the FIRST question.
  • Candidates may give a wide variety of answers depending on what they have  covered in class.
  • Candidates could include correct information that is not included in the text book.  Professional judgement must be used. If unsure, this must be verified by  researching the area concerned.
  • Low, medium or high cognitive levels expected in each answer are included above  the possible answers.
  • Markers should NOT award full marks for an answer that is superficial and minimal  or where all requirements have not been met. 
  • Look for what the candidate knows, not what he/she doesn't know. 
  • Allocate ONE tick for ONE mark, for the content provided, up to the maximum  marks. 
  • No ½ marks may be awarded for insufficient content in answers. 


LOW LEVEL 1.1  Defining   5 marks 
MEDIUM LEVEL 1.2 Analysing  5 marks 
HIGH LEVEL  1.3 Opinion  5 marks 

NOTE: Provide 5 definitions for 5 marks. 
1.1  Core stability:  

  • The strength of the abdominal and spinal muscles to support the body  effectively.
  • Having the strength in the centre of the body to maintain balance while  moving through space. 
  • The strength in the torso.
  • The ability to do strong movement and be stable at the same time. 

Flexibility: The range of movement (ROM) around a joint/group of joints. 

  • The ability of a muscle to produce maximum force/resist gravity.
  • The ability of your muscles to hold a movement for a long time 

Endurance/stamina: The staying power of the body/muscles to perform for  long periods of time without getting tired. Cardio-respiratory/muscular  endurance could be defined. 
Neuromuscular skills:  

  • The ability of the brain to send messages via the nerves to the muscles.
  • How to move/instant reaction time of the body in response to messages  sent from the brain/automatic movement.
  • To do movements without conscious thought(muscle memory) (5)

1.2 NOTE: answers must relate to performance. 
Analyse inadequate core stability. Do NOT award marks for the benefits  of core stability. 
Possible areas that could be included: 

  • Control/correct placement/line
  • Fluidity of movement 
  • Agility and accuracy 
  • Transitions/transference of weight 
  • Levels of complexity in movement vocabulary 
  • Elevation 
  • Holding positions 
  • Isolating movements
  • Coordination of movements
  • Balance
  • Support of the spine/placement/alignment (5)
  • Any other suitable answers.

1.3 NOTE: ALL answers must relate to how components of fitness could be  developed which will enhance components of fitness/fitness levels in  the dance class. Do not award marks for just listing exercises. Provide  examples and explain clearly how fitness is being developed. 
Possible areas that could be included: 

  • Core training exercises, e.g. sit ups, etc.
  • Strength training exercises, e.g. balancing/adage, etc.
  • Endurance/cardio vascular training exercises, e.g. travelling/jumping, etc. 
  • Flexibility training exercises – static stretching/dynamic stretching within  exercises 
  • Increasing complexity of exercises 
  • Attending classes regularly/additional classes/increasing the length of  classes 
  • Overload principle - doing more each lesson 
  • Floor work to strengthen specific parts of the body 
  • Gym/swimming/sports, etc. – specific exercises and how this will enhance fitness in the dance class (5) 
  • Any other suitable answers. [15] 

MEDIUM LEVEL Explaining 7 marks 
NOTE: Possible areas that could be included for poor technique. Injuries must  relate to the dance class. Answers must include substantiated examples.
Answers relating to poor environment must not receive a mark. 

  • Warming up/cooling down
  • Poor posture/stance/alignment
  • Incorrect use of turn out
  • Incorrect landing from a jump 
  • Incorrect use of feet 
  • Lack of spotting during turns, etc. 
  • Being taught incorrect technique by a teacher – executing unsafe movements
  • Dancers not applying the corrections they have been given – continually repeating  mistakes.
  • Irregular attendance in class means technique won't be fully understood/have gaps  in training
  • Lack of fitness – inability to execute technical requirements correctly ∙ Any other suitable answers. [7] 

3.1 Explaining  4 marks 
3.2 Explaining 4 marks 
NOTE: Answers must relate to enhanced technical ability and dance performance.
3.1 Nutrition: 

  • The brain will be able to focus and apply technique/corrections, etc. 
  • Carbohydrates provide energy so dancers can perform for longer periods. ∙ Protein builds muscle tissue – strong muscles can execute complex  movements.
  • Vitamins and minerals boost the immune system so classes are not  missed due to illness – technique/fitness levels do not deteriorate. (4) 
  • Any other suitable answers. 

3.2  Hydration: 

  •  Dancers lose a lot of water through strenuous physical activities by  sweating so they need to constantly be taking in water while performing so  they do not become fatigued/overheated/dehydrated. 
  • Water is a vital requirement which enhances performance so that the body  and brain can function optimally during rigorous exercise/performances.
  • Water regulates the body temperature so the dancer does not over heat  which will lower levels of performance and concentration which could lead  to an injury.
  • Water helps carry nutrients and oxygen to the working cells so the dancer  can perform for long periods without getting fatigued.
  • Water is necessary for the excretion of waste products which prevents  cramping in the muscles which will hinder performance. 
  • Lean muscle tissue is made up of water and needs it to work efficiently  during strenuous exercise. 
  • Any other suitable answers (4) [8] 

NOTE: Candidates have a choice between QUESTION 4 and QUESTION 5.  Mark only the first question answered if both are answered. 

LOW LEVEL:  4.1   Matching  4 marks 
MEDIUM LEVEL: 4.2  Analysing  6 marks 
4.1.1  B  (1) 
4.1.2  C  (1) 
4.1.3  D  (1)  
4.1 4. A   (1) 
4.2.1 Biceps Brachii (1)
4.2.2 Sternocleidomastoid (1) 
4.2.3 Action: Outward/External rotation (1) 

  • Iliopsoas
  • Gluteus Maximus (1)
  • Sartorius 

Action: Abduction 

  • Tensor fasciae latae
  • Gluteus medius (1)
  • Gluteus minimus 

4.2.4 NOTE: Mark only muscles relating to extension of the knee  joint: (Candidates can name the group or the individual  muscles listed below). 

  • Quadriceps (Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Medialis, Vastus Intermedius,  Rectus femoris) (1) 

4.2.5 NOTE: Mark only muscles relating to plantar flexion of the ankle  joint: 

  • Soleus
  • Gastrocnemius 
  • Flexor Digitorum Longus
  • Tibialis Posterior
  • Flexor Digitorum Hallucis Longus (1) [10] 


LOW LEVEL:  5.1  True/false  4 marks 
MEDIUM LEVEL:   5.2   Explaining  6 marks 
5.1.1 T(1) 
5.1.2 T(1) 
5.1.3 T(1) 
5.1.4 F(1) 
NOTE: Only a simple definition/explanation is required. 
5.2.1 Musicality: 

  • It enables a dancer to interpret the qualities/dynamics/mood/ emotions within a piece of music through movement. (1)
  • Any other suitable answers. 

5.2.2 Transitions: 

  • The smooth linking of movements makes the work look effortless. (1) 
  • Any other suitable answers. 

5.2.3 Dynamics: 

  • Create interest and enhance the performance/movement quality  as movements will have varied energy/force.(1) 
  • Any other suitable answers. 

5.2.4 Projection: 
NOTE: must relate to movement quality 

  • The use of eyes/focus/presence aids in connecting with an  audience/other performers/the emotions/moods of the dance work,  etc. 
  • Any other suitable answers. (1) 

5.2.5 Fluency: 

  • The ability to bring together technique, style and fitness to perform  with clarity and effortlessness.
  • Any other suitable answers. (1) 

5.2.6 Commitment: 
NOTE: Must relate to movement quality 

  • Commitment to movement/others/sharing space sensitively/  emotional connections by being fully engaged/giving full  attention/focus, etc.(1) [10] 
  • Any other suitable answers. 


6.2 Naming  5 marks
6.3  Outlining  5 marks
NOTE: Use professional judgement in allocating marks if candidates do not  name the dance major. Do not accept characteristics for this question, e.g.  costumes, music, etc. 
Outline = overview (not looking for detail) 
6.1 No mark allocated. 
6.2 NOTE: If candidates have named AND outlined the techniques in 6.2  carry the marks over to 6.3 
Techniques could include: 

  • Dance principles
  • 7 basic movements of ballet/dance
  • Use of the arms/legs/feet/head
  • Transference of weight 
  • Turn out 
  • Landing 
  • Spotting 
  • Movement vocabulary 
  • Use of gravity
  • Stance/posture/alignment/epaulemnent 
  • Use of aerial movements/turns, etc. 
  • Stylistic techniques, e.g. Graham/Horton/Balanchine/ballroom/Latin  American
  • Any other suitable answers (5) 

6.3 Outline each of the techniques: (5) 
This must relate to each of the techniques provided in 6.2. [10] 

MEDIUM LEVEL 7.1.1 Analysing  4 marks 
7.1.2 Evaluating  2 marks 
7.2  Reflection  4 marks 
NOTE: The candidate's answers in 7.1 must relate directly to the image/stimulus.  SPACE, TIME and FORCE must be included in the answer for full marks to be  awarded. More information may be provided on one element than another in  7.1.1 but both must be included for full marks to be awarded.
7.1.1 Space + explanation:  

  • Levels 
  • Shape 
  • Direction – vertical/horizontal.
  • Any other suitable answers. 

Force + explanation: 

  • Defying gravity 
  • Powerful movements – arms/legs/torso
  • Any other suitable answers. (4) 

7.1.2 Time and explanation: 

  • Timing of the lift
  • Unison/coordination 
  • Duration of movement
  • Any other suitable answers. (2) 

7.2 NOTE: The candidate's answer should include personal development  and development as a dancer. More information may be provided on one  section than another. BOTH must be included for full marks. 
Possible areas that could be included. Each one must include HOW they  developed the person/dancer. 
PAT – choreography could include: 
Personal development: 

  • Creative/critical thinking skills
  • Problem solving/decision making skills 
  • Developing production/marketing skills
  • Application of skills and knowledge 
  • Organisational skills – planning/preparation
  • Time management skills 
  • People management skills – collaboration/leadership 
  • Reflecting on processes
  • Any other suitable areas of personal development 

Development as a dancer: 

  • Creative thinking – making new movements
  • Broadening dance vocabulary 
  • Learning choreographic skills 
  • Developing ideas from a starting point to a final product
  • Safe dance practice when rehearsing
  • Any other suitable area for development as a dancer. (4) [10]

NOTE: Candidates have a choice between QUESTION 8, QUESTION 9 and  QUESTION 10. Mark only the first question answered if more are  provided. 
8.1 Describing  2 marks 
8.2 Explaining  3 marks 
8.3 Outlining   3 marks 

8.4 Describing 6 marks 
8.5 Explaining  5 marks 
8.6 Explaining  6 marks 
8.7  Opinion 3 marks 
       Format  2 marks 

  • 8 LOW 
  • 17 MEDIUM
  • 5 HIGH 

NOTE: Many possible answers will be provided. Use professional judgement to  evaluate the candidate's response. Bullets used to aid marking. 

Writing as if in an interview – style of answers/first person. 
NOTE: If candidate uses the correct format but all the information is  incorrect, they will receive the 2 marks. (2) 

  • He grew up with only his mother
  • They were very poor 
  • They moved around a lot searching for work
  • The only stable point in their lives was the Baptist Church
  • He grew up in a culture of black segregation (South Texas) (2)
  • Any other suitable answers. 


  • Cry was inspired by his mother's struggles
  • The Baptist church influenced his choice of religious themes and gospel  music in some of his pieces
  • Many of his works depict 'blood memories' of hardship/segregation (3)
  • Any other suitable answers. 

8.3 NOTE: Awards must be explained if a mark is to be awarded. 

  • In 1958, he founded Alvin Ailey American Dance Theatre
  • He had a vision of a company dedicated to enriching the American  modern dance heritage and preserving the uniqueness of the African American cultural experience.
  • He established the Alvin Ailey American Dance Centre (now The Ailey  School) in 1969.
  • He formed the Alvin Ailey Repertory Ensemble (now Ailey II) in 1974.
  • Ailey was a pioneer of Arts in Education programmes, particularly those  benefiting underserved communities. 
  • In 1988, he received the Kennedy Centre Honour in recognition of his  extraordinary contribution to American culture.
  • Ailey wanted to make dance accessible to ordinary people, like his aunts  and uncles who did not have many opportunities due to the segregation in  America.
  • His style/technique continues to be taught to this day. (3)
  • Any other suitable answers. 

8.4 Production elements: 
NOTE: Music must not be included in this section. 
Pilgrims of Sorrow: 
NOTE: More information may be included on one theme that the other.  BOTH must be included for full marks. 

  • Darkly lit – the cyclorama is only lit up after this section has started and  then the general lights become brighter.
  • There is a pool of light shining only on the group of dancers.
  • The costumes are simple shift dresses/pants and shirts which could  represent the clothes worn by slaves in brown/rust colours 
  • Any other suitable answers. 

Move members move: 

  • Main colour used is yellow – joy/new day/warmth, etc. 
  • Dancers wear Sunday best – showing respect for their religion 
  • Fans and stools – representing where the service took place 
  • Cyclorama has large red sun – new beginnings/hope for the future 
  • Any other suitable answers. (6) 

8.5 NOTE: If music information has been included 8.4 it could be carried  over to this section. 
If instruments are included without an explanation no marks are to be  awarded. 
Music as enhancement to the work: 

  • According to Alvin Ailey, Revelations began with the music. It is infused  with what he terms 'blood memories' of his youth, growing up with the  sounds of spirituals and gospel music.
  • The music is a medley of spirituals reflecting and expressing protest. 
  • The songs reflect a belief in God to save oppressed people from despair  and grief which give them hope to triumph over all odds. 
  •  Some of the spirituals are slow and speak of grief and suffering.
  • Some are joyous and a celebration of life/the future, e.g. the final scene of  the church goers is upbeat and celebratory as is the dance which shows  the full cast dancing in unison and harmony – symbolic of a people rising  up against all odds and triumphing.
  • The music explores motivations and emotions of African-American  religious music – songs of trouble, love and deliverance which are  reflection in the different sections of Revelations.  (5)
  • Any other suitable answers. 

8.6 Movement vocabulary: 

  • Many of the movements involve the upper body (torso and arms) reaching  up desperately towards the heavens. Symbolic of asking for help from  God. 
  • The lower body (legs) remain grounded. Symbolic of being trapped in  slavery. 
  • Ailey uses hand gestures, arm movements and port de bras to great  effect, e.g. dancers join their hands in prayer, stretch their arms out with  hands wide, tap gently on the ground and curve their arms, bird-like.  Symbolic of everyday pain and anguish/the need to be free.
  • The unison movements of the nine dancers are simple but powerful and  show gestures of spiritual need in the famous wedge-shaped formation at  the start of this section. Symbolising that they are drawn together by  shared strength, devotion and reverence.
  • The trio in this section shows angry expression and revolt. Symbolic of  the oppression of the black people in the 1930s.
  • The pas de deux shows the male dancer continually supporting the  female dancer as she reaches up towards heaven, often balancing on his  leg to add emphasis to this reaching movement. The male dancer could  symbolise the female dancer's spiritual guide.
  • The movements also show the burden of suffering through the bowed  backs and downward turned arms as if carrying a huge weight on their  backs.
  • It shows the suffering of the people, their struggle and resistance, through  the use of deep pliés (bending of the knees) in second position.
  • 'Didn't My Lord Deliver Daniel' is a dance based on percussive  movements and expresses a kind of internalised anger – a resistance  against the isolation of the individual. 
  • 'Fix Me Jesus' is a duet which begins with the idea of weight and falling  and slowly begins a dance about rising. It is a dance of instruction, a  dance of follow-the-leader in which the dancer symbolising the pastor  gives the word to his flock as symbolized by the initiate.
  • Any other suitable answers. (6) 

8.7 Opinion on what makes Revelations timeless could include: 

  • Discrimination/injustices of segregation.
  • It is timeless as it celebrates the power of faith.
  • It unites people in the power of the message - a community can overcome  adversity/people and overcoming the struggle with faith.
  • The composition of the work and the content of the work is universal. 
  • It crosses the colour lines/all people can relate to this work.  (3)
  • Any other suitable answers. [30] 

9.1 Describing 2 marks 
9.2 Describing 3 marks 
9.3 Outlining 3 marks 
9.4 Describing 6 marks 
9.5 Explaining 5 marks 
9.6 Explaining 6 marks 
Opinion  3 marks 
Format  2 marks 

  • 8 LOW
  • 17 MEDIUM
  • 5 HIGH 

NOTE: Many possible answers will be provided. Use professional judgement to  evaluate the candidate's response. Bullets used to aid marking.
POSSIBLE ANSWERS: Writing as if in an interview – style of answers/first person. 
NOTE: If candidate uses the correct format but all the information is  incorrect, they will receive the 2 marks. (2) 
9.1 Interest in dance: 

  • His interest in dance started during the political uprising in the late 1980's  in Soweto, as a way to escape the growing political tension.
  • In 1990, he saw an advert in the Sowetan newspaper for auditions at  Moving into Dance Mophatong (MIDM) 
  • He was inspired to dance by pop stars like Michael Jackson and traditional  hostel dwellers. (2) 
  • Any other suitable answers. 

9.2 Professional career: 

  • He danced under the direction of Sylvia Glasser, the founder of Moving  into Dance Mophatong, where he started his first formal training.
  • Received a scholarship at the Performing Arts Research and Training  School (PARTS) in Belgium. 
  • He founded Vuyani Dance Theatre (VDT) in 1999 while in Belgium.
  • He was head choreographer for the FIFA world cup kick off concert.
  • He created the dance and theatre musical, Tshihumbudzo, for the ANC.
  • He was the artistic director of the Afro-Vibes festival in the Netherlands  and the UK
  • He has appeared as a guest teacher for various universities in Africa, USA  and Europe. 
  • He has created new works/repertoire for various companies in South  Africa such as Jazzart Dance Theatre, South African Ballet Theatre and  Cape Performing Arts Company.
  • He has established himself as an internationally renowned dancer,  choreographer and director. 
  • Any other suitable answers. (3) 

9.3 Contributions: 
NOTE: Awards must be explained if a mark is to be awarded. 

  • He has developed a dance style of African contemporary and urban styles. 
  • He produces works that question and challenge social values. He deals  with contentious political and gender issues in order to educate the public.
  • His dance company - Vuyani Dance theatre runs classes and outreach  programmes to develop and nurture young talent.
  • He uses dance as a platform to establish artistic directions, to  communicate qualities and values addressing our fundamental humanity. 
  • He has established himself as an important element in the history of  contemporary African dance in South Africa and beyond. (3)
  • Any other suitable answers. 

9.4 NOTE: Music must not be included in this section. More may be written on one season than the other. Both must be  included for full marks to be awarded. 

  • The costumes reflect brown leaves depicting a dry season.
  • The dancers are dressed in flimsy gold shift dresses over red leotards as if  they are leaves.
  • The lighting uses gobos, creating floor patterns to reflect the dry land.
  • The video projection reflects brown leaves, depicting the dry season. 
  • This is enhanced by the lighting that creates pools of floor patterns  symbolic of a dry land.
  • Any other suitable answers. 


  • The dancers' costumes are in spring colours, e.g. pastel shades of yellow,  pink, orange and cream.
  • The costumes consist of ribbons which move as the dancers perform  giving the effect of flowers. 
  • The video projection of flowing flowers sets the scene for spring. 
  • Slow abstract fluttering of leaves and flowers are projected onto the stage  and move as if they have a mind of their own as do the costumes.  (6)
  • Any other suitable answers. 

9.5 NOTE: If music information has been included 9.4 it could be carried  over to this section.  
If instruments are included without an explanation no marks are to be  awarded. 

  • The music is played live by four musicians; violinist, lead and bass guitarists, drummer/percussionist, which enhances the atmosphere on the  stage. 
  • These musicians are placed at the back of the stage behind a scrim and  are visible during some sections and disappear during others which build  the atmosphere on stage.
  • The music reflected the mood in all the seasons:
    • Winter: The musicians were not visible but provided the rhythmic  drive to the dancers marching movements. The music creates an  eerie feeling of a waste land/abandonment at the start. It became  loud/harsh and powerful.
    • Spring: The musicians are revealed for the first time adding a  feeling of depth to the stage. The music becomes more rooted in  African rhythms as does the dance. 
    • Autumn: The music sets the scene with the sound of wind blowing,  building to a rock and roll feel, depicting chaos and loss. The  mournful sounds of the violin accompany the two dancers left on  stage echoing their sense of pain and loss. The sound of the violin  and the rhythmical clapping from the dancers take the audience  from gloom to joy. 
    • Summer: The music is vibrant with a Brazilian samba feel which  influences the dance movements. Louis Armstrong's song – 'What  a wonderful world' is played which establishes the message of hope  for the future. (5)

9.6 General areas that could be included: 

  • Contemporary African movements. There is a fusion of many different  African dance styles.
  • There is a South American influence in the final scene where the  movements are done to samba rhythms.
  • Movements show imitations of animals and the natural world.
  • There is a lot of contact work shown in lifts in all seasons. 
  • Any other suitable answers. 


  •  The movements are staccato, sharp and angular reflecting anger and  violence. 
  • These contrast with movements of head and shoulders drooping forwards,  as if the dancer has given up. 
  • The dancers' bodies often rebound as if caught in gunfire. 
  • They seem anxious and are continually pacing across the stage.
  • They continually cock their hands, as if simulating guns they are about to  fire. 
  • Any other suitable answers. 


  •  The dancers become creatures in the wild; depicting spring as the  beginning of life, the greenery, flowers blooming, antelopes galloping,  different birds priding themselves in their feathers.
  • There are bursts of energy from different dancers, taking the space; it is a  joyful dance.
  • Any other suitable answers. 


  • The dancers become victims of strong winds, bodies thrown to the floor,  wind-milling and showing a sense of danger.
  • The group collect and clap rhythmically as they observe one dancer who  shows his struggles with the wind/survival/loss and pain. 
  •  Any other suitable answers. 


  •  Movements show hope and bursts of joy showing unity among the  dancers and support for each other.
  • The movements are influenced by the samba rhythms which include the  sensual use of hips as performed in a samba.
  • The dancers end the dance work by leaving the stage into a threatened  landscape. (6)
  • Any other suitable answers.  

9.7 NOTE: Candidates will provide their own opinions on the relevance of  this work. Use professional judgement when awarding marks. 

  •  Throughout societies man is responsible for the destruction of the planet – this work highlights the importance of preserving the planet.
  • Water is a scarce resource and the autumn scene highlights how  important it is to conserve water.
  • The importance of climate change is clearly shown highlighting the  important role humans have to protect the planet.
  • The work is not only about destruction but gives the message of hope if  humans work together in unity.
  • Any other suitable answers. (3) [30] 

NOTE: Many possible answers will be provided. Use professional judgement to evaluate the candidate's response. Bullets used to aid marking. 
The name of the choreographer and dance work.  
Writing as if in an interview – style of answers/first person. 
NOTE: If candidate uses the correct format but all the information is  incorrect, they will receive the 2 marks. (2) 
10.1 Training: 

  • Training/dance schools
  • People/mentors/teachers 
  • Dance companies they trained with 
  • Any other suitable answers. 

Professional career: 

  •  Companies he/she performed with/started 
  • Dance works choreographed 
  • Roles in other dance companies 
  • Relationships/collaborations 
  •  Any other suitable answers. (5) 

10. 2 Contribution to dance and society: 
NOTE: Awards must be explained if a mark is to be awarded.

  • Companies founded 
  • Job creation 
  •  Political/social statements 
  •  Education of dance learner's/student dancers 
  • Creating new generations of choreographers 
  •  Any other suitable answers. (3) 

10.3 Production elements: 

  •  Lighting: colours used – atmosphere/effect
  • Props/Sets: explain how they added to the intent 
  • Special effects: projections/images/sound/voice, etc. and how they added  to the intent/meaning 
  • Costumes: style/colour/design and how they expressed ideas
  • Symbolism of the production elements (6)
  • Any other suitable answers. 

10.4 NOTE: If music information has been included 10.3 it may not be  repeated in 10.4. 
If instruments are included without an explanation no marks are to be  awarded. 
The music: 

  • Genre/style of music – how it enhanced the intent
  • Instrumentation – how this affected movement 
  • Tempo/dynamics, etc. – how it affected the mood/atmosphere
  • Use of vocals/other – meaning of the words 
  • How it contributed to the overall success of the work with examples (5)
  • Any other suitable answers. 

10.5 Symbolism used in movement vocabulary with substantiated examples:

  • Use of dance genres – style/mix/fusion of styles.
  • Use of dance elements: space/time/force.
  • Choreographic elements: groupings/patterns/use of the stage/dancers.
  • Motifs/gestures/anything else that helps to express emotion. 
  • Symbolism – making meaning through movements, message.
  • Use of dancers. 
  • Any other suitable answers. (6) 

10.6 Recommending could include: 

  • Level of performers/performance
  • Entertainment factor – production elements/special effects, etc.
  • The message of the work 
  • Any other suitable answers. (3) [30]

HIGH LEVEL: Evaluating 10 marks
NOTE: If candidates repeat the same choreographer/dance work as answered in  Question 8, 9 OR 10, they will receive a zero mark.  
Do not award marks for a description of synopsis/intent/theme. 
Do not award marks for naming/describing production elements without  evaluating HOW they added to the symbolic portrayal of the work. Same for  movements. 
More may be provided in one section than the other but production elements  and movements must be included to receive full marks. 
Production elements PLUS examples from dance work: 

  • Lighting: colours used – atmosphere/effect 
  • Props/sets: explain why they were used. 
  • Special effects: projections/images/sound/voice, etc. and how they added to the  theme/intent/meaning 
  • Costumes: style/colour/design and how they expressed ideas 
  • Symbolism of the production elements 
  • Any other suitable answers 

Movement vocabulary PLUS examples from dance work:  

  • Descriptions of movements and what they mean 
  • Gestures conveying a meaning 
  • Partner/group work conveying a meaning
  • Formations/patterns conveying a meaning 
  • Particular focus on arms/legs/feet/face and the meaning conveyed
  • Use of choreographic elements and dance elements to express the intent
  • Any other suitable answers. [10] 


Last modified on Wednesday, 15 September 2021 07:59