Tour planning

❖ Itinerary – is a detailed plan of the tourist’s journey.
❖ Tourist profile – is an indication of the tourists’ wants and needs.
❖ Element of a client profile

➢ Name, Gender, Age, Budget, Nationality, Location, Occupation, Purpose of visit, Type of tourist, Special needs

❖ Route planning – Why it is important when compiling a tour plan?

➢ It saves time, so that they can spend less time on travelling and more time on activities and attractions.
➢ It is logical and easy to follow
➢ Its economical

❖ Importance of having a budget in place when preparing a tour plan

➢ To be able to know all the different costs that they will have when they embark on their journey.
➢ A budget will help the tourist plan their trip effectively.

❖ Aspects /element of an itinerary

➢ Accommodation
➢ Transport
➢ Attractions and activities
➢ Meals
➢ Budget
➢ Number of people travelling
➢ Route to be taken
➢ Time of year
➢ No. of days


❖ Time zone – is a region on the earth where all the countries have adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time.
❖ Greenwich – is the base from which all time is calculated.
❖ Equator – is an imaginary line around the Earth that is the same distance from the North and South Poles.
❖ Season- is any of the four seasons of the year created by the annual change in the weather.
❖ Standard time- is the uniform time that is used by all countries using the same line of longitude.
❖ Local time – is the actual time according to the position of the sun.
❖ Elapsed time also known as flying time – is the time spent on a flight.

Time calculations

Step 1
❖ Identify time zones of countries in question.

Step 2
❖ SSS DSA to find the time difference in time

Step 3
❖ Is a country with a question mark AHEAD or BEHIND?
❖ If a country with a question mark is AHEAD you ADD difference.
❖ If a country with a question mark is BEHIND you SUBTRACT the difference.

Step 4
❖ You Always ADD the flight time when calculating the ARRIVAL.
❖ You Always SUBTRACT the flight time when calculating the DEPARTURE.

Step 5
❖ When calculating the ARRIVAL TIME you ADD 1hr of DST if the country in question is practising DST at that time.
❖ When calculating the ARRIVAL TIME you SUBTRACT 1hr of DST if the country with time (departure country) is practising DST at that time.
❖ When calculating the DEPARTURE TIME you SUBTRACT 1hr of DST if the country in question is practising DST at that time.
❖ When calculating the DEPARTURE TIME you ADD 1hr of DST if the country with time is practising DST at that time.

Daylight Saving Time
❖ Daylight Saving Time is the practice of adjusting the clock one hour ahead in summer.

Reasons for practising daylight saving time/ Benefits of practising DST
❖ It increases productivity
❖ Boosts tourism as more people are able to engage in outdoor activities.
❖ Helps to reduce crime
❖ Helps save energy as fewer lights are needed during working hours.

Impacts of DST on travel planning
❖ A tourist must be able to calculate the correct time of arrival in a country practising DST.
❖ The tourist might miss a connecting flight by 1 hour if DST was not considered.
❖ To publish timetables and travel schedules with the correct times.

Jet lag
❖ Jet lag is a physical condition caused by crossing many time zones during the flight.
❖ Jet fatigue is the discomfort one feels from being in a confined space for a long time.

❖ Disturbed sleeping patterns
❖ Headache
❖ Lack of energy

How to prevent jet lag?
❖ Change the sleeping routine
❖ Drink lots of fluids, especially water
❖ Rest during the flight by taking short naps.
❖ Avoid alcohol and caffeine
❖ Keep active by walking around the cabin in order to stretch your hands and legs.


Precautions and vaccinations

  1. Malaria – an infectious disease caused by being bitten by a mosquito carrying the parasite.
    ❖ Symptoms – flu-like symptoms, headaches, vomiting
    ❖ Prevent – Take anti-malaria tablets, use a mosquito repellent
  2.  Cholera – is a bacterial infection that passes into the body when one drinks infected water.
    ❖ Symptoms – Diarrhoea, vomiting, dehydration
    ❖ Prevent – use sealed bottled water, boil water before using it.
  3. Compulsory vaccinations and recommended vaccinations
    ❖ Compulsory vaccinations are regulated according to identified threats found in some countries. To contain the spreading of a high risk disease.
    ❖ Recommended vaccinations are just precautionary measure to ensure the health of individual tourists and are optional. Are not a measure for high risk diseases.

Places where tourists can get healthcare information:
❖ Internet
❖ Travel clinics
❖ Travel agencies
❖ Tourism Information offices
❖ Airports
❖ Libraries
❖ Travel magazines
❖ Travel websites


On the street
❖ Do not display your valuables
❖ Do not accept lifts from strangers.
❖ Use credit cards or carry small amounts of cash.

In the car
❖ Do not give lifts to strangers.
❖ Never display your valuables in the car.
❖ Drive within the speed limit of the road.

In the hotel
❖ Do not leave your luggage unattended.
❖ Keep your room door locked at all times.
❖ Check who is at the door before opening it.
❖ Check your credit card if you use it in the hotel.

At the airport
❖ Always keep your bags where you can see them.
❖ Make sure all your bags have locks.
❖ Do not allow anyone to check your bags except for designated security officers.
❖ Don’t carry goods through customs of a stranger.

In public places
❖ Be aware of your surroundings.
❖ Become familiar with the local police services.
❖ Ensure you use registered qualified guides.

After dark
❖ Avoid isolated places at night.
❖ Always travel in groups.
❖ Use well-known public transport.
❖ Ensure that your cell phone is charged.


  1. Passport
    ❖ Passport is a legal document that allows a person to leave or enter another country. ❖ Issued by the Department of Home Affairs
    ❖ Valid for 10 years adult, 5 years child
    ❖ Requirements: A completed Application from
    • Proof of identity
    • Two size photographs
  2. Visa
    ❖ A visa is an endorsement on a passport that gives a traveller permission to be in another country for a specified period.
    ❖ Issued by Consulate or Embassy
    ❖ Requirements:
    ➢Valid passport
    ➢Specific visa fee
    ➢Return air ticket
    ➢Two passport sized photographs
    ➢Proof of sufficient financial means
    ❖ Visa to apply for to gain access to England and France – Schengen visa
    Advantages of using Schengen visa / multi-visa
    ➢ Saves money because you only pay for one visa.
    ➢ Saves time because you don’t visit different embassies to apply for the different visas.
  3. International Driver’s Permit/Licence
    ❖ IDP can be obtained from AA (Automobile Association)
    ❖ Requirement needed to obtain International Driver’s Permit:
    ➢Valid driver’s licence,
    ➢2 photographs,
    ➢ Fees,
    ➢Identity document,
    ➢Application form,
    ➢Proof of residence.
    ❖ Functions of IDP
    ➢ Provides translation of the South African driver’s licence in several different languages.
    ➢ Helps the tourist to rent a vehicle in another country and obtain travel insurance.
  4. Health certificate / Yellow Fever certificate
    ❖ Health certificate can be obtained from TRAVEL CLINICS


❖ Customs office - is the authority that is responsible for monitoring the movement into and out of border areas.
❖ Customs - is the check point where luggage is checked for the carrying of any illegal or prohibited goods.
❖ Immigration - is the check point where all travel documentation is checked.
❖ Green Channel – channel at which nothing need to be declared.
❖ Red Channel – channel at which goods need to be declared.
❖ Duty free goods – goods that don’t have tax added to their price.
❖ Restricted goods – goods that can be carried by following strict rules that govern the carrying of these items.
❖ Prohibited goods – goods that cannot be carried by the passenger under any circumstances.


❖ GDP – Gross Domestic Product is a total value of all goods and services produced in a country in one year.
❖ Currency – another name for money.
❖ Foreign currency – money from another country.
❖ Exchange Rate – the value of one currency expressed in terms of another.
❖ Foreign exchange – the process of converting one currency to another currency.
❖ Fluctuations – the process whereby the value of money changes from time to time. Changes in the value of the exchange rate follow an upwards or downwards (strengthen and weakens) trend over an extended period of time.
❖ BBR – Bank Buying Rate is the rate used by the bank to buy foreign currency.
❖ BSR – Bank Selling Rate is the rate used by the bank to sell foreign currency.

Benefits of a healthy GDP
A healthy GDP results in
❖ Job creations
❖ Skills development
❖ Infrastructure development
❖ Great output of export
❖ Attract investment

How tourism contribute to the GDP of the country
❖ Using tourism products and services results in increase of taxes and levies which contribute to the GDP.
❖ Standards of living will be improved through money directly and indirectly earned by tourism.
❖ It will set the multiplier effect into motion, creating job and entrepreneurial opportunities thereby improving the standards of living.
❖ It contributes through infrastructural development.
❖ Skills development can be encouraged.

Causes for the Rand Fluctuation
❖ Economic upsets
❖ Strikes
❖ Labour unrest
❖ Global Events
❖ Seasonality
❖ Political changes

The Impact of weak rand on Inbound and outbound tourism
❖ Inbound- Increase of foreign visitors to South Africa. Increase in tourism spending- more value for money. Increase in length of stay.
❖ Outbound- Fewer South Africans choose to travel overseas because it is expensive. Tourists spend less at international destinations. More choose to travel domestically – increase in domestic travel.

Advantages of using EUR in European countries
❖ To simplify travelling and spending in neighbouring countries.
❖ To become a strong currency in the global market place, currency is stronger than other currencies.
❖ To strengthen the regional economy.



❖ An icon is a significant feature of a country that makes that country famous all over the world.
❖ An attraction could be anything that causes tourists to visit a destination.

Ways which increasing number of visitors to a particular icon or attraction lead to economic growth in South Africa
❖ The tourism services providers make a profit, setting the multiplier effect into motion.
❖ Leads to increase in job opportunities, infrastructure development, rise of new businesses and expansion of existing establishments,
❖ Citizens benefit directly or indirectly due to the increased number of tourists entering the country.
❖ Earn valuable foreign exchange.

Factors contributing to the success of a tourist attraction
❖ Excellent marketing at both local and international level
❖ Sustainable and responsible management plans
❖ Efficiency and ethical behaviour of staff and management
❖ Positive experience of visitors
❖ Safety and crime prevention
❖ General appearance and upkeep of the attraction
❖ Considering the needs of people with disabilities and universal access

Characteristics of a successful tourist attraction
❖ Actual visitor number exceed target number
❖ Repeat visits
❖ Income generated exceeds target figures
❖ Positive impact on the local community and the environment



UNESCO – United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation

Main aim of UNESCO
❖ To contribute to peace and security in the world and by bringing the nations of the world together.
❖ To declare and protect world heritage sites.

Functions of UNESCO
❖ Constant monitoring to maintain and protect the status of the World Heritage Sites.
❖ Provide support in terms of management plans.
❖ Promote co-operation and development
❖ Assistance with upgrading of facilities in the event of an unforeseen occurrence.
❖ Encourage people to nominate sites to be included in the World Heritage Site list.

  1. Cradle of Humankind (Fossil Hominid Sites) – Cultural site
    ❖ Declared in 1999
    ❖ Found in Gauteng and North West Province and Limpopo
    ❖ Contains evidence of fossil remains dating back millions of years.
    ❖ Criteria: (iii)(vi)
    ❖ Criterion (iii): The nominated serial site bears exceptional testimony to some of the most important Australopithecine specimens dating back more than 3.5 million years.
    ❖ Criterion (vi): The serially nominated sites are situated in unique natural settings that have created a suitable environment for the capture and preservation of human and animal remains that have allowed scientists a window into the past.
  2. Robben Island – Cultural site
    ❖ Declared in 1999
    ❖ Found in Western Cape
    ❖ Buildings on Robben Island bear unusual evidence to our history.
    ❖ It was once used as a hospital, military base and prison.
    ❖ Robben Island symbolises freedom and democracy over oppression stemming from our history of apartheid which signifies universal significance.
    ❖ Criteria: (iii) (vi)
    ❖ Criterion (iii): The building of Robben Island bear eloquent witness to its sombre history.
    ❖ Criterion (vi): Robben Island and its prison buildings symbolise the triumph of the human spirit, of freedom and of democracy over oppression.
  3. Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape – Cultural site
    ❖ Declared in 2003
    ❖ Found in Limpopo Province
    ❖ Represents the Iron Age and is the site where the golden rhinoceros was found.
    ❖ Criteria: (ii)(iii)(iv)(v)
    ❖ Criterion (ii): Contains evidence of human cultural activities, over a period of time that led to cultural and social changes between the AD 900 and 1300.
    ❖ Criterion (iii): Remains in the area serve as evidence to the growth and decline of the culture/ civilisation which existed in the Mapungubwe state.
    ❖ Criterion (iv): Mapungubwe served as a powerful trading state through East African ports with Arabia and India.
    ❖ Criterion (v): The remains in the Mapungubwe graphically illustrate the impact of climate change and record the growth and then decline of the Kingdom of Mapungubwe as a clear record of a culture that became vulnerable to irreversible change.
  4. Isimangaliso Wetland Park – Natural site
    ❖ Declared in 1999
    ❖ Found in KwaZulu Natal
    ❖ Criteria: (vii)(ix)(x)
    ❖ Criterion (vii): The site is geographically diverse with superlative scenic vistas along its 220km coast.
    ❖ Criterion (ix): This site contains sensitive ecosystem from Africa’s marine, wetland and savannah environments.
    ❖ Criterion (x): A coastal site with the largest biodiverse estuarine system in the Southern Hemisphere.
  5. Cape Floral Region Protected Areas – Natural Site
    ❖ Declared in 2004
    ❖ Found in Western Cape and Eastern Cape Provinces
    ❖ Criteria: (ix)(x)
    ❖ Criterion (ix): Representing ongoing ecological and biological processes associated with the evolution of the unique Fynbos biome / the fynbos species are only found in this area of South Africa, the only habitat for this flora in the world.
    ❖ Criterion (x): It is one of the richest areas for plants when compared to any similar sized are in the world. It is one of the world’s 35 biodiversity hotspots.
  6. Vredefort Dome – Natural site
    ❖ Declared in 2005
    ❖ Found in Free State and North West Provinces
    ❖ Meteorite hit the earth thousands of years ago creating the largest meteorite impact site in the world.
    ❖ Criteria: (viii)
    ❖ Criterion (viii): Vredefort Dome is the oldest, largest, and most deeply eroded complex meteorite impact structure in the world.
  7. UKhahlamba Drakensberg Park – Mixed site
    ❖ Declared in 2000
    ❖ Found between KwaZulu Natal
    ❖ A high-altitude site with rolling grasslands, steep-sided river valleys, rocky gorges and examples of rock art.
    ❖ Criteria: (i)(iii)(vii)(x)
    ❖ Criterion (i): It is the largest and most concentrated group of rock paintings in Africa south of the Sahara.
    ❖ Criterion (iii): The San people lived in the mountainous area for more than four millennia, leaving behind them a corpus of outstanding rock art, providing a unique testimony which throws much light on their way of life and their beliefs.
    ❖ Criterion (vii): A high-altitude site with rolling grasslands, steep-sided river valleys, rocky gorges also contribute to the beauty of the site.
    ❖ Criterion (x): The property contains significant natural habitats for in situ conservation of biological diversity.
  8. Richtersveld Cultural and Botanical Landscape – Cultural site
    ❖ Declared in 2007
    ❖ Found in Northern Cape
    ❖ Criteria: (iv)(v)
    ❖ Criterion (iv): An outstanding example of a landscape which illustrates an important stage in human history of the Nama people.
    ❖ Criterion (v): Cultural site protects the living heritage of the Nama people.
  9. = Khomani Cultural Landscape – Cultural Site
    ❖ Declared in 2017
    ❖ Found in Northern Cape
    ❖ Criteria: (v)(vi)
    ❖ Criterion (v): The large expanse of sand contains evidence of human occupation from the Stone Age to the present and is associated with the culture of the formerly nomadic =Khomani San people and the strategies that allowed them to adapt to harsh desert conditions.
    ❖ Criterion (vii): Bears testimony to the way of life that prevailed in the region and shaped the site over thousands of years.
  10. Barberton Makhonjwa Mountains – Natural Site
    ❖ Declared in 2018
    ❖ Found in Mpumalanga Province
    ❖ Criteria: (viii)
    ❖ Criterion (viii): Represents the best preserved succession of volcanic and sedimentary rock dating back 3.6 to 3.25 billion years, when the first continents were starting to form on the primitive Earth.

❖ Gain prestige- making a country proud of the achievement. More people deciding to visit the country.
❖ People show added care for the heritage and learn to conserve for future generations ❖ Increased revenue for a country.
❖ Increased job opportunities.
❖ Infrastructural improvement
❖ Uplifts the overall standard of an area.


Marketing South Africa as a tourism destination

Role of SA Tourism in marketing South Africa internationally as a destination of choice for tourists
❖ Marketing activities showcase our country as a choice destination at various global travel trade shows.
❖ Vigorous advertising
❖ Their international offices help to extend marketing.

Tourism event that takes place at the ITB Berlin
❖ Travel trade show/ Travel trade exhibition

Role that SAT plays at the ITB Berlin
❖ SATourism is responsible for marketing South Africa.
❖ Show-casing the various tourism products and services available in South Africa.

Ways which South Africa is advantaged by SATourism’s activities at the ITB Berlin.
❖ It creates opportunities for South African tourism businesses and provincial tourism authorities to market at an international tradeshow.
❖ Awareness of South Africa as a value-for-money long-haul destination for the Germany and European markets and other delegates at the ITB.


❖ TOMSA – Tourism Levy South Africa

Sectors contributing to the TOMSA levy
❖ accommodation sector, car rental companies, tour operators

Relationship between TOMSA AND SA Tourism
❖ SAT can use the funds raised by TOMSA to promote the South Africa locally and internationally.

Way in which TOMSA collects money from tourism businesses in South Africa to fund SATourism’s marketing activities.
❖ Tourism businesses add a voluntary 1% tourism levy to tourists’ bills which is then paid over to TOMSA through TBCSA who are the administrators of TOMSA.

Involvement of the Tourism Business Council of South Africa (TBCSA) in TOMSA’s operations
❖ Levies are paid by the tourists which are paid to TBCSA who are the administrators of TOMSA.

The elements found on South Africa’s brand logo
❖ The South African flag is used and is an internationally recognised representation associated with SA.
❖ The country’s name is written out in full, leaving no room for confusion.
❖ Slogan: Inspiring new ways.
❖ The colours of the South African flag.

The importance of marketing South Africa as a destination of choice
❖ Ensures that South Africa competes in and taps into a highly competitive market place.
❖ It showcases the attractiveness of South Africa.
❖ It results in an increase in inbound tourism.


❖ Professional image – is the image you project through your appearance, attitude, behaviour and morals.
❖ Contract of employment – is an agreement between the employer and the employee which describes the rights and responsibilities required for the job.
❖ A code of conduct – is a set of rules that guide behaviour in a work place.
❖ The document that stipulate the laws under which an employee is employed – Basic Conditions of Employment Act (No. 75 of 1997)

The importance of signing the contract of employment before starting a new job
❖ Contact of employment protects the employer and the employee.
❖ It defines the conditions under which the employee is employed.

What is included in a contact of employment?
❖ Working hours
❖ Core duties
❖ Remuneration (salary)
❖ Travel benefits
❖ Leave
❖ Fringe benefits (are other benefits that an employee can enjoy while being employed at that company. E.g. cell phone costs, petrol allowance, vehicle purchase discounts, discounted travel and medical insurances)
Employees get 3 days of Family Responsibility leave.

The value of a code of conduct
❖ A code of conduct guides the conduct of staff in a business.
❖ It promotes integrity in the workplace
❖ It guides staff on ethical matters in the workplace.
❖ Encourages employees to act responsibly.

What is included in a code of conduct?
❖ The behaviour of employees when at work
❖ Confidentiality
❖ Use of company assets
❖ Honesty
❖ Appropriate dress
❖ Integrity of staff
❖ Obeying of laws and regulations
❖ Substance abuse

The importance of personal appearance of all employees.
❖ It is a reflection on the environment in which they work.
❖ It can create a sense of trust in the business or vice versa

How a business can portray the professional image
❖ The company name, logo and slogan
❖ The company stationery
❖ The physical appearance of the business
❖ Promotions and communication with customers and the website or social media sites.
❖ Marketing material and product packaging
❖ Credentials and awards
❖ Employee appearance and conduct
❖ Environmental policies
❖ Customer service policies

How the employees can maintain the professional image/ how the staff can contribute to the professional image of the company?
❖ Adhere to company policy, adhere to dress code, smile – it brings in the money, Personal appearance – be well groomed/ neat, Punctuality- manage time effectively, Behaviour and attitude- note posture/ approach. Have extensive knowledge. Acquiring excellent communication skills.

Consequences of a negative conduct
❖ Customers will support the opposition.
❖ Negative word of mouth may result in fewer customers.
❖ Decreasing profit margins
❖ Loss of employees

Intervention strategies to management that can improve the negative conducts of employees
❖ The employees can undergo additional training sessions.
❖ The employees can work under supervision until the conduct is acceptable.
❖ The employee can get a written warning.
❖ Disciplinary procedures can be started.


Sustainable – something which can be kept in the same condition or a better condition for the future.

Social – People                               Environmental – Planet                          Profit/ financial – Profit

Environment (planet) – how socially responsible the company is with regard to the natural environment.
Economy (profit) – how responsibly the company acts in terms of ownership, procurement, employment.
Social (people) – what effect the company has on its employees and the communities in which it operates.

  1. Environment (Planet)
    ❖ Resource management – businesses should make sure that they conserve energy and water. This can be done by:
    switching off lights and appliances when not in use, use solar heating for hot water, collect rainwater in a tank to water the garden and grounds, not wasting water by allowing taps and pipes to leak, using water-saving showers and toilets, use washing
    ❖ Waste management – If a business wants to control the amount of waste it generates, it should make sure that it obeys the three principles of reduce, recycle and re-use
    ❖ Litter and pollution control – businesses should make sure that they limit the amount of pollution it causes. This can be done by:
    Encourage all staff to pick up litter when they see it.
    Taking care not to pollute streams and rivers with chemicals and rubbish.
    Avoiding extremely bright lights, as light pollution can also cause problems, particularly in game reserves.
    ❖ Environmentally friendly buildings- This can be done by:
    Using building material that are not harmful to the environment.
    Making sure that the buildings are well insulated so that they keep cool in summer and warm in winter, thus minimising the need for heating and air-conditioning.
    ❖ Promotion of indigenous flora and control of alien plants
    Plant indigenous plants in the grounds, which need less water to grow.
  2. Economy (Profit)
    ❖ Ownership – offer shares to employees
    ❖ Employment –
    ➢job vacancy for local people
    ➢Fair wages and working conditions
    ➢Provide skills training programmes for staff.
    ➢Practices must be transparent
    ➢Provide staff with incentives and bonuses linked to performance or service levels.
    ➢Procurement of local goods and services – buy local goods and services
  3. Social (People)
    ❖ Stakeholders to be part of decision making
    ❖ Provide training & empowerment of staff
    ❖ Corporate Social Investment (CSI) – is a way in which a tourism business can give back to the local community in which it operates.
    ❖ Forms of CSI:
    ➢ adopting a local school
    ➢Provide bursaries to local school learners
    ❖ Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) – is where a business engages in a project from time to time, more as a marketing initiative.(e.g. the business will help set up a mobile clinic or library for a community not necessarily where they operate from)

Responsible tourism and tourists
Responsible tourism – form of practising tourism so that it is sustainable.
Responsible tourism – is an approach to the management of tourism, aimed at maximising economic, social and environmental benefits and minimising costs to destinations.

Codes of conduct for tourist behaviour
❖ A code of conduct is a set of rules, which are written down, on how people are expected to behave.

How can a tourist destination attract environmentally conscious tourist.
❖ The business must have a responsible travel and/or environmental policy.
❖ The business must stimulate the local economy by buying local products and services.
❖ Have a recycling programme in place.
❖ Practise the triple bottom – line approach
❖ Responsible marketing of businesses
❖ Encourage visitors to use water sparingly
❖ Do not buy or sell products made from endangered species, e.g. hard woods, shells from beach traders
❖ Going green
❖ Developing partnerships
❖ Joining FTT
❖ Promoting emerging and local businesses

Types of responsible tourist behaviour that visitors should exhibit when visiting an attraction.
❖ Use water and energy sparingly.
❖ Recycle, reduce and re-use.
❖ Avoid an form of pollution
❖ Do not vandalise.
❖ Leave only footprints.

Benefits that responsible tourism behaviour has for a community
❖ It ensures that visitors and local communities alike share the benefits of tourism and travel equally.
❖ It creates a sense of pride.
❖ It promotes greater understanding of and appreciation for fair and equitable business practice.

Fair Trade Tourism

FTT (Fair Trade Tourism) - is a non-profit organisation that promote sustainable tourism development in Southern Africa and beyond.
The aim of FTT is to make tourism more sustainable by ensuring that the people who contribute their land, resources, labour and knowledge to tourism are the ones who reap the benefits.
This is done by growing awareness about responsible tourism to travellers; assisting tourism businesses to operate more sustainably; and by facilitating a Fair Trade Tourism certification programme across Southern Africa.
Tourism businesses that adhere to the FTT standard use the FTT label as a way of signifying their commitment to fair and responsible tourism.

FTT six principles

  1. Fair share- all participants involved in a tourism activity should get their fair share of the income, in direct proportion to their contribution to the activity.
  2. Democracy (fair say) – all participants involved in a tourism activity should have the right and opportunity to participate in decisions that concern them.
  3. Respect – both host and visitor should have respect for human rights, culture and environment (safe working conditions and practices, protection of young workers, promoting gender equality, HIV/AIDS awareness).
  4. Reliability – the services delivered to tourists establish mechanism of accountability (ownership must be clearly defined, sharing of profits, benefits and losses must be transparent, employees and other participants should be able to access information that concern them).
  5. Sustainability – the tourism businesses should strive to be sustainable.

Fair Trade good practices:
❖ Fair Wages and working conditions
❖ Products must be obtained from local producers
❖ Have respect for human and environmental rights
❖ Reliability and Transparency
❖ Practicing sustainability


➢ A global event is something that all countries know of and affect or change the whole world.

➢ It involves multi-country participation.
➢ It draws large crowds from all over the world.
➢ It generates multi-country interest.
➢ Has major global media attention.
➢ The event requires proper planning and preparation.
➢ Large sums of money is invested in the event.

Sporting events: 2010 FIFA World Cup (football), Wimbledon (tennis), Comrades Marathon (running), Tour de France (cycling), Olympic Games (all sporting codes).
Non- Sporting Events: G8 Summit, Summits on climate change, Miss Universe and Miss World), World Conferences.

➢ ECONOMIC- Increased foreign revenue, increased business transactions and therefore increased profits, Creation of employment opportunities, Skills developments, Publicity via media experiences at the destination, Creations of other investment opportunities.
➢ SOCIAL – Communities are uplifted through skills development and job creation, communities are able to showcase their cultures.
➢ ENVIRONMENTAL – More money is invested in protecting the environment, more funding becomes available as profits made from the event, physical and natural environment are upgraded to enhance its tourism attractiveness.

➢ ECONOMIC – Large sums of money are invested in preparation for the event, increased employment is only temporary, many people over-invest and once the event is over the investment is not sustainable, Negative publicity if something goes wrong.
➢ SOCIAL - Cultural disrespect can result in conflict situations, increase in criminal activity, a superficial image is created about the destination for the duration of the event.
➢ ENVIRONMENTAL – Mass tourism can result in increased stress on the natural environment, air pollution from increased demand for transport, litter created by the event creates more pressure on the environment, and the natural environment can be cleared away for infrastructure development.

POSITIVE – Domestic tourists see it as an opportunity to participate in such unique event, Pride in their country and the need to support the event.
NEGATIVE – Major construction in infrastructure may make it inconvenient for people to travel, Prices are usually higher due to increased demand, Places may be fully booked, and congestion and overcrowding may discourage domestic tourists.


➢ Creation of employment opportunities
➢ Attracts investment
➢ Wide scale of infrastructural development
➢ Increased foreign revenue
➢ Increased marketing for the host country
➢ All tourism sectors tend to benefit from the influx of tourists
➢ Skills development and entrepreneurial opportunities for locals
➢ It will set the multiplier effect into motion
➢ Will result in positive GDP growth
➢ Increased publicity/ positive image
➢ International publicity and exposure

➢ Increased levels of crime
➢ Increased pollution/ traffic congestion
➢ Negative media coverage if the event proves to be unsuccessful
➢ Exploitation of cultures and surrounding environments
➢ Disruption of daily commuting patterns of the local people
➢ Overcrowding with international and domestic visitors flocking to the city.

Political situation
❖ Political situation – is any event that involves the countries government and the way in which the country is run.
❖ Types of political situations
➢ Acts of terrorism
➢ Protests
➢ Xenophobia
❖ The impact this situation have on international tourism and the economy of the affected country
➢ Tourists may chose not to visit the country which will decrease foreign revenue.
➢ Investors will pull out
➢ Jobs will be lost due to fewer tourists visiting the country.
➢ The negative WOM/media coverage may discourage potential tourists from visiting the country.

Unforeseen circumstances
❖ An unforeseen circumstance - is an event that cannot be predicted in advance.
❖ Types of unforeseen occurrences
➢ Natural disasters
➢ Economic upsets
➢ Accidents
➢ Diseases
❖ The impact this unforeseen occurrence have on international tourism and the economy of the affected country
➢ Tourists may chose not to visit the country which will decrease foreign revenue.
➢ The country may lose potential investors.
➢ Jobs will be lost due to fewer tourists visiting the country.
➢ Loss of profits may lead to retrenchments.

Why it is important for SATourism to have statistics
❖ To provide for the needs and wants of customers.
❖ To monitor travel trends.
❖ To gather information in order to market South Africa as a preferred destination.

Reasons why the European markets visit more in South Africa (more number of tourists from these countries)
❖ Favourable exchange rate for them (South Africa is a VFM destination)
❖ Travelling time is convenient
❖ Business opportunities
❖ South Africa is considered a safe destination compared to other major destinations.
❖ Our climate attracts tourists

Reasons why other countries don’t like to visit South Africa (least number of tourists from these countries)
❖ We are not a VFM destination for them.
❖ Travelling time is too long
❖ Attractions we have may be similar to what they provide.
❖ Our climate may not be appeal to them

Ways that SATourism can use to encourage inbound tourism from a least visiting country
❖ Intensive marketing programmes
❖ Offering incentives to tourists
❖ Research their specific needs and develop packages around those research.
❖ Examine possibility of offering direct flights
❖ Dropping visa regulations for tourists


❖ Customer feedback: is the process of collecting information from customers regarding the satisfaction or dissatisfaction they feel with a product or service.

The purpose of customer feedback
❖ To gain information on what they are doing right, what they are doing wrong, how they can improve and how they can attract more customers.

Types of customer feedback:
❖ Surveys, Questionnaires, Feedback cards, Follow-up calls, sms services, web-based responses, mystery customer.

Analysing customer feedback

  1. Study and capture the feedback data to determine the extent of customer satisfaction.
  2. Identify the most common complaints
  3. Decide on an action plan
  4. Start the intervention process

Ways how feedback methods help to improve the level of service delivery of tourism businesses
❖ Feedback gathered from clients is used to evaluate service delivery.
❖ To ensure satisfaction levels of customers are established.
❖ The message that the tourism business cares about its customers are established,
❖ The information captured can be used to improve service delivery levels at the business.
❖ Quick feedback and problems are addressed immediately.

Intervention plans that should be implemented to improve service delivery OR Suggest strategies that can be used to improve service
❖ Staff sent for regular training courses to improve service delivery skills.
❖ Training methods adopted to improve the speed of service.
❖ Offer incentives to employees to maintain good work ethics.
❖ Continuous feedback from customers.

Negative impacts that poor review could have on a business
❖ Loss of customers
❖ Loss of business profitability
❖ Loss of income
❖ Negative publicity due to negative word of mouth
❖ Loss of repeat visit

Impacts of excellent service on business profitability
❖ More money for the business.
❖ The business gets a better reputation.
❖ Increased customer satisfaction.
❖ Customer loyalty
❖ Repeat business
❖ Positive word-of-mouth

Last modified on Thursday, 02 December 2021 11:38