Question 1: Multiple choice
Choose the correct answer. Only write the letter of the answer you select.
1.1 The interchange of water between Earth’s surface and the atmosphere is called:

  1. transpiration.
  2. precipitation.
  3. the water cycle.
  4. evaporation. (3)

1.2 The system consisting of all living things is the:

  1. hydrosphere.
  2. biosphere.
  3. atmosphere.
  4. lithosphere. (3)

1.3 What provides the energy to allow for a continuous water cycle?

  1. the Sun
  2. the Earth
  3. wind
  4. the hydrosphere (3)

1.4 The term ‘hydrosphere’ describes one of the Earth’s spheres and it includes all:

  1. of the water above and below the continents only.
  2. of the water on the planet.
  3. the fresh water on the planet only.
  4. of the liquid water on the Earth, minus ice. (3)

1.5 Which process does not produce carbon dioxide?

  1. burning of coal
  2. respiration (breathing)
  3. running of motor car engines
  4. transpiration (3)                         [15]

Question 2: One-word answers
Name the four interconnected systems that make life on Earth possible. (4) [4]

Question 3: Long question
Describe one useful way and one harmful way in which the hydrosphere interacts with:
3.1 the lithosphere. (4)
3.2 the biosphere. (4)
3.3 the atmosphere. (4)             [12]

Question 4: Long question
Describe the ways in which water escapes from the ocean and is eventually returned to the ocean. (6)          [6]

Question 5: Long question
Describe possible causes of pollution in rivers and dams. (6)          [6]

Question 6: Long question
Describe two advantages and two disadvantages of building large dams. (8)             [8]


Question 1: Multiple choice
1.1 C 
1.2 B
1.3 A
1.4 B
1.5 D

Question 2: One-word answers

  • hydrosphere 
  • atmosphere 
  • lithosphere
  • biosphere 

Question 3: Long question
3.1 Water enters the lithosphere through rain, providing an underground water supply (aquifers). Water dissolves nutrients in the soil that enable plants to grow,
in turn providing food for animals. Water runs off the land into rivers and dams. Water also dissolves harmful chemicals that can pollute rivers and dams.
Heavy rain can cause soil erosion.
3.2 Plants and animals cannot survive without water, as it is the solvent in which all the chemical reactions of living processes take place. Water dissolves nutrients in the soil that enable plants and in turn animals to grow. Heavy rain can cause flooding, destroying crops and causing the death of animals and humans. Soil erosion, caused by heavy rain, can make soil less fertile. 
3.3 Water on Earth evaporates, providing water vapour in the atmosphere that can precipitate, providing water for the biosphere. The oxides of carbon, sulphur
and nitrogen are gases given off during the burning of fossil fuels. They dissolve in the water vapour in the atmosphere, causing acid rain. 

Question 4: Long question
Ocean water evaporates forming water vapour in the atmosphere. Drops of water collect and can precipitate directly back into the ocean. Precipitation on land can run off to form rivers that flow back into the ocean. Water that collects underground can flow underground into the ocean.

Question 5: Long question
Acid rain caused by gases such as CO2, SO2, N2O and NO2 dissolving in water vapour in the air. Fertilisers and other chemicals dissolving in rain water and running into rivers and dams. Chemicals from industry being discharged straight into rivers and dams. 

Question 6: Long question

  • Advantages of large dams: A large amount of water can be retained for irrigation and can be provided for use by people and animals in times of drought. The water could be used in hydro-electric schemes (to generate electricity). 
  • Disadvantages: Areas below the dam may experience drought, flooding may occur when floodgates/sluices are opened. The environment is altered and
    people and animals may be displaced.
Last modified on Monday, 21 February 2022 09:24